Eosinophil


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Related to Eosinophil: basophil, monocyte

eosinophil

[‚ē·ə′sin·ə‚fil]
(histology)
A granular leukocyte having cytoplasmic granules that stain with acid dyes and a nucleus with two lobes connected by a thin thread of chromatin.

Eosinophil

 

a cell of vertebrates, including man, whose cytoplasm contains rounded granular structures that are stained by acid dyes, in particular by eosin. The eosinophils of the blood originate and mature in the bone marrow. They comprise 3–4 percent of leukocytes in the peripheral blood of a healthy human being. This level is subject to a daily rhythm and is regulated by the system which includes the pituitary body and the adrenal cortex.

In allergic reactions, eosinophils release the inhibitor histamine, which belongs to the prostaglandins E1 and E2. They also serve as phagocytes.

An increase in the percentage of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or an increase in their absolute number is called eosinophilia. As a rule, this condition is reactive in character, regardless of the degree of its severity. The possibility of developing eosinophilic leukemia is still a matter of dispute. Eosinophilia is accompanied by various reactions and diseases, predominantly allergic, including those related to the breaking down of the body’s resistance by parasites or medicinal and food allergens. Aggregations of eosinophils observed in the tissues, as, for example, in the mucosa of the bronchi (and sputum) in bronchial asthma, are called tissue eosinophilia. Eosinophilic infiltrates, large aggregations of eosinophils in the tissues, are occasionally observed in various organs, predominantly the lungs. They may run their course as short-term reactions or result in such severe illnesses as pneumonia, myocarditis, vasculitis, and meningoencephalitis. A number of other diseases are also accompanied by a high eosinophilia. In some cases it is impossible to establish the nature of the disease that is accompanied by a high eosinophilia. The condition may be observed even in people who are otherwise healthy.

Hürtle cells, one of the types of cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary body, are also called eosinophils.

L. D. GRINSHPUN

References in periodicals archive ?
Evidence shows that eosinophils play an active role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
These eosinophils are our defence system to deal with inflammation.
Organizations, Groups, and Healthcare Providers Celebrating National Eosinophil Awareness Week:
A number of cytotoxic substances are then released, including highly cationic molecules such as eosinophil cationic protein, major basic protein, ribonuclease eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, oxidizing molecules such as eosinophil peroxidase and free oxygen radicals, and enzymes such as elastase and collagenase.
Both cytokines play an important role in the production, activation and survival of eosinophils in the bone marrow and peripheral blood, as well as the enhancement of cellular functions of eosinophils in peripheral circulation (6,7).
Eosinophilia, eosinophil-associated diseases, chronic eosinophil leukemia, and hypereosinophilic syndromes.
Without eosinophils you cannot regenerate muscle," Chawla said.
In a separate logistic regression analysis, we also modelled the relationship between eosinophil counts as a continuous variable, and risk of a composite outcome of either unplanned ICU re-admission or post-ICU mortality using a three-knot restricted cubic spline function (26).
10,11) This association exists because glucocorticoids inhibit eosinophil proliferation and survival, (12-14) an effect that is exploited clinically when steroids are used as treatment of reactive eosinophilias (see Treatment of Eosinophilias" below).
The results of the study, based on the data collected from 60 children aged one year, were recently published in the British medical journal "Clinical & Experimental Allergy": It was found that children with skin manifestations, such as atopic dermatitis or cradle cap, have increased levels of eosinophil progenitors in their blood.
A total of 54 SNPs were detected in various chromosomes by the stepwise regression procedures, and the SNPs for each trait explained great proportions of phenotypic variance, ranging from 24% for eosinophil to 42% for neutrophil (Table 3).
Eosinophils also egress from circulation, while basophils remainlargely unaffected.

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