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Related to epinephrine: epinephrine reversal, racemic epinephrine


(ĕp'ənĕf`rīn), hormonehormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 important to the body's metabolism, also known as adrenaline. Epinephrine, a catecholaminecatecholamine
, any of several compounds occurring naturally in the body that serve as hormones or as neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system. The catecholamines include such compounds as epinephrine, or adrenaline, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
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, together with norepinephrinenorepinephrine
, a neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family that mediates chemical communication in the sympathetic nervous system, a branch of the autonomic nervous system.
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, is secreted principally by the medulla of the adrenal glandadrenal gland
or suprarenal gland
, endocrine gland (see endocrine system) about 2 in. (5.1 cm) long situated atop each kidney. The outer yellowish layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland secretes about 30 steroid hormones, the most important of which are aldosterone and
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. Heightened secretion caused perhaps by fear or anger, will result in increased heart rate and the hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose. This reaction, often called the "fight or flight" response, prepares the body for strenuous activity. The hormone was first extracted (1901) from the adrenal glands of animals by Jokichi Takamine; it was synthesized (1904) by Friedrich Stolz. Epinephrine is used medicinally as a stimulant in cardiac arrest, as a vasoconstrictor in shock, as a bronchodilator and antispasmodic in bronchial asthma, and to lower intra-ocular pressure in the treatment of glaucoma.


See B. B. Hoffman, Adrenaline (2013).


A hormone which is the predominant secretion from the adrenal medulla; also known as adrenalin, it has the structure shown. Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic substance; that is, it acts on tissue supplied by sympathetic nerves, and generally the effects of its action are the same as those of other nerve stimuli. Conversely, the stimulation of the splanchnic or visceral nerves will cause the rapid release of the hormone from the medullary cells of the adrenal gland. Thus, epinephrine plays an important role in preparing the organism to meet conditions of physiologic emergency.

When injected intravenously, epinephrine causes an immediate and pronounced elevation in blood pressure, which is due to the coincident stimulation of the action of the heart and the constriction of peripheral blood vessels. The chief metabolic changes following the injection of epinephrine are a rise in the basal metabolic rate and an increase of blood sugar. These effects of epinephrine are transitory. See Adrenal gland, Carbohydrate metabolism

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C9H13O3N A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that acts to increase blood pressure due to stimulation of heart action and constriction of peripheral blood vessels. Also known as adrenaline.
References in periodicals archive ?
Widespread prescription of epinephrine is common, and the risks in using this medication are minimal.
That's unfortunate, but it doesn't surprise me as much as the fact that a small percentage was given epinephrine in case they need it.
And even if epinephrine does work, victims can't depend on medics to have it.
1 mg EAI [epinephrine auto-injector] to deliver a dose of epinephrine appropriate to infants and small children weighing 16.
And according to a recent independent study, one in three patients prescribed epinephrine failed to carry their medication during a reported anaphylactic event, demonstrating the continued need for awareness and education.
sup][6] Epinephrine is an endogenous catecholamine with high affinity for a- and [sz]-adrenergic receptors present in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle.
Let's be clear; each of these devices has about two dollars worth of epinephrine in them.
About a fifth of camps said it would take more than 10 minutes for an anaphylactic child to get an epinephrine shot.
We're encouraged to see national efforts to make epinephrine autoinjectors more affordable and more available to Americans across the country," Cary Sennett, MD, PhD, president and CEO of the Landover, Md.
Because the mother didn't have a rash, it was not necessary to order epinephrine.
The injector automatically calibrates and delivers the epinephrine dose for the person in need.