equivalent


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equivalent

1. Maths
a. having a particular property in common; equal
b. (of two equations or inequalities) having the same set of solutions
c. (of two sets) having the same cardinal number
2. Maths Logic (of two propositions) having an equivalence between them

Equivalent

 

The equivalent of an element is the weight, expressed in carbon mass units, that will combine with or replace one atomic weight of hydrogen or one-half atomic weight of oxygen.

The equivalent of an acid is equal to the acid’s molecular weight divided by its alkalinity (number of hydrogen ions).

The equivalent of a base is equal to the base’s molecular weight divided by its acidity (number of hydroxyl groups).

The equivalent of a salt is equal to the molecular weight of the salt divided by the sum of the charges of the cations or anions forming the salt.

In oxidation-reduction reactions, the equivalent of an oxidizing agent is equal to the quotient obtained as a result of dividing the agent’s molecular weight by the number of electrons obtained by the atom or atoms of the reduced element. The equivalent may vary, depending on the number of electrons accepted by the oxidizing agent.

The concept of equivalent is widely used in the stoichiometric calculations of chemical reactions.

S. A. POGODIN

References in classic literature ?
An exchange of names is equivalent to a ratification of good will and amity among these simple people; and as we were aware of this fact, we were delighted that it had taken place on the present occasion.
To take sides against him were equivalent to treason.
Wherever Captain Carter has used Martian measurements of time, distance, weight, and the like I have translated them into as nearly their equivalent in earthly values as is possible.
Fred felt sure that he should have a present from his uncle, that he should have a run of luck, that by dint of "swapping" he should gradually metamorphose a horse worth forty pounds into a horse that would fetch a hundred at any moment--"judgment" being always equivalent to an unspecified sum in hard cash.
The farmer had paused over Fred's respectable though broken-winded steed long enough to show that he thought it worth consideration, and it seemed probable that he would take it, with five-and-twenty pounds in addition, as the equivalent of Diamond.
We prevented them from catching fish at many times and seasons, which was equivalent to preventing them from making as good a living as they might have made had we not been in existence.
The idea instantly struck me that this (so far as sound went, at any rate) was the English equivalent of Van Brandt.
modern equivalent, the steel pen, is wielded by the same everlasting
Eighty cents--the equivalent of eight long hours of my toil at the machine, gone down our throats, and gone like that, in a twinkling, leaving only a bad taste in the mouth.
That is almost equivalent to a state of perfect rest.
In this contention, nature may seem to some to have come off victorious, as she bestowed on him many gifts, while fortune had only one gift in her power; but in pouring forth this, she was so very profuse, that others perhaps may think this single endowment to have been more than equivalent to all the various blessings which he enjoyed from nature.
The goal is before them, the road is in the best condition, their spurs are on, the steed is willing, but, at the last moment, for want of some special thing--a clock, a violin, an astronomical telescope, an electrifying machine--they must dismount for ever, unless they receive its equivalent in money from Nicodemus Boffin, Esquire.