training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Exercise training in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis: comparison of three rehabilitation programs.
Robinson further mentioned that current evidence is incomplete and inconsistent and further research ought to be done to determine the benefits of supplementation and exercise training for older people.
2] did not engage in regular exercise training at the time of their enrolment.
We want to know if a fitter heart suffers less damage during cancer treatment, and whether we can treat that damage with exercise training, similar to cardiac rehabilitation after a heart attack.
The scientific papers discuss recent findings on topics such as caffeine and its effect on the brain, carnitine and fat oxidation, ergogenic properties of P-alanine on exercise performance, dietary protein and muscle reconditioning, nutrition and immune status, and the importance of proper hydration during exercise training.
The rats were randomly assigned to 7 groups as: sedentary controls (C) that had never run in the experiment; untrained groups that were acutely forced to exhausting exercise and sacrificed; immediately after exhaustion (UT-i), 1 day after exhaustion (UT-1), 3 days after exhaustion (UT-3); trained groups, that had long-term exercise training, forced to exhausting exercise and sacrificed; immediately after exhaustion (T-i), 1 day after exhaustion (T-1) and 3 days after exhaustion (T-3).
We examined the effects of exercise training on markers of both brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in relation to endurance capacity assessed by a treadmill run to fatigue (RTF) in mice.
Greg Blok and his flight lead were on a night, large force exercise training mission from USS Nimitz (CVN 68).
Exercise intensity is commonly quantified as metabolic equivalents (METs), a value that is often used as a goal for exercise training (5); vigorous physical activity is classified as >6 METs (6).
HOUSTON--Diet-induced weight loss with or without an accompanying exercise training program improved insulin sensitivity and other key cardiometabolic risk factors in an obese elderly population, a randomized trial showed.
VANCOUVER, British Columbia, July 15, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Four studies reported today at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference 2012 (AAIC 2012) describe the ability of targeted exercise training to promote improved mental functioning and reduced risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in cognitively healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

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