explosive

(redirected from explosively)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal.

explosive,

substance that undergoes decomposition or combustion with great rapidity, evolving much heat and producing a large volume of gas. The reaction products fill a much greater volume than that occupied by the original material and exert an enormous pressure, which can be used for blasting and for propelling.

Classification of Explosives

Chemical explosives can be classified as low or high explosives. Low (or deflagrating) explosives are used primarily for propelling; they are mixtures of readily combustible substances (e.g., gunpowder) that when set off (by ignition) undergo rapid combustion. High (or detonating) explosives (e.g., TNT) are used mainly for shattering; they are unstable molecules that can undergo explosive decomposition without any external source of oxygen and in which the chemical reaction produces rapid shock waves. Important explosives include trinitrotoluenetrinitrotoluene
or TNT
, CH3C6H2(NO2)3, crystalline, aromatic compound that melts at 81°C;. It is prepared by the nitration of toluene.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (TNT), dynamitedynamite,
explosive made from nitroglycerin and an inert, porous filler such as wood pulp, sawdust, kieselguhr, or some other absorbent material. The proportions vary in different kinds of dynamite; often ammonium nitrate or sodium nitrate is added.
..... Click the link for more information.
, nitrocellulosenitrocellulose,
nitric acid ester of cellulose (a glucose polymer). It is usually formed by the action of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids on purified cotton or wood pulp.
..... Click the link for more information.
, nitroglycerinnitroglycerin
, C3H5N3O9, colorless, oily, highly explosive liquid. It is the nitric acid triester of glycerol and is more correctly called glycerol trinitrate.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and picric acidpicric acid
or 2,4,6-trinitrophenol
, C6H2(NO2)3OH, a toxic yellow crystalline solid that melts at 122°C; and is soluble in most organic solvents. Picric acid is a derivative of phenol.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Cyclonite (RDX) was an important explosive in World War II. Ammonium nitrateammonium nitrate,
chemical compound, NH4NO3, that exists as colorless, rhombohedral crystals at room temperature but changes to monoclinic crystals when heated above 32°C;. It is extremely soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and liquid ammonia.
..... Click the link for more information.
 is of major importance in blasting.

Applications of Explosives

The major use of explosives has been in warfare. High explosives have been used in bombs, explosive shells, torpedoes, and missile warheads. Nondetonating explosives, e.g., gunpowder and the smokeless powders, have found extensive use as propellants for bullets and artillery shells.

The most important peaceful use of detonating explosives is to break rocks in mining. A hole is drilled in the rock and filled with any of a variety of high explosives; the high explosive is then detonated, either electrically or with a special high-explosive cord. Special explosives, called permissible explosives, must be used in coal mines. These explosives produce little or no flame and explode at low temperatures to prevent secondary explosions of mine gases (see dampdamp,
in mining, any mixture of gases in an underground mine, especially oxygen-deficient or noxious gases. The term damp probably is derived from the German dampf, meaning fog or vapor. Several distinct types of damp are recognized.
..... Click the link for more information.
) and dust. One important explosive used in mining, called ANFO, is a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil. Its use has revolutionized certain aspects of open-pit and underground mining because of its low cost and relative safety.

Development of Nondetonating Explosives

Until the 19th cent. gunpowder was widely used in most types of firearms. The invention of various smokeless powders led to the ultimate replacement of gunpowder as a propellant in rifles and guns. Probably the first successful smokeless powder was made by Edward Schultze, a Prussian artillery captain, c.1864. After 1870 it was known as Schultze powder. Its rate of burning was less than that of guncotton because of the partial gelatinization of the powder by a mixture of ether and alcohol; however, it still burned too rapidly for use in rifles. Schultze powder is used in shotguns, blank cartridges, and hand grenades and in igniting the dense, propellant powder used in artillery. The main constituent of Schultze powder is nitrocellulose.

About 1885 a smokeless powder suitable for rifled guns appeared. Invented by Paul Vieille, it was called poudre B and was made from nitrocotton and ether-alcohol. Subsequently, Alfred NobelNobel, Alfred Bernhard
, 1833–96, Swedish chemist and inventor. Educated in St. Petersburg, Russia, he traveled as a youth and returned to St. Petersburg in 1852 to assist his father in the development of torpedoes and mines.
..... Click the link for more information.
 added to the growing list of smokeless powders a substance called Ballistite. In Ballistite two of the most powerful explosives known at the time were united; it is made from nitrocotton (with a low nitrogen content) gelatinized by nitroglycerin. Another smokeless powder, cordite, was invented by Sir Frederick Augustus Abel and Sir James Dewar in 1889; it contained a highly nitrated guncotton and nitroglycerin blended by means of acetone. Mineral jelly was added to act as a lubricant. Indurite, invented by Charles E. Monroe in 1891, is made from guncotton and is colloided with nitrobenzine; washing with methyl alcohol frees the lower nitrates from the guncotton.

Bibliography

See T. C. Davis, The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives (2 vol., repr. 1972); J. F. Stoffel, Explosives and Homemade Bombs (2d ed. 1972); R. Meyer, Explosives (3d ed. 1987).

explosive

[ik′splō·siv]
(materials)
A substance, such as trinitrotoluene, or a mixture, such as gunpowder, that is characterized by chemical stability but may be made to undergo rapid chemical change without an outside source of oxygen, whereupon it produces a large quantity of energy generally accompanied by the evolution of hot gases.

explosive

Any explosive chemical compound, mixture, or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to produce an explosion; i.e., with substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat, unless such compound, mixture, or device is otherwise specifically classified by the US Department of Transportation. Class A: possessing detonating hazard, such as dynamite or nitroglycerin. Class B: possessing flammable hazard, such as propellant explosives. Class C: containing class A or class B explosives, but in restricted quantities.

explosive

a substance that decomposes rapidly under certain conditions with the production of gases, which expand by the heat of the reaction. The energy released is used in firearms, blasting, and rocket propulsion
References in periodicals archive ?
Fast-twitch fibers contract faster and more explosively than other muscle fibers, giving a racehorse power to gain speed quickly.
One would be hard-pressed to think of a more conducive environment for dropping dead than this scenic but explosively violent Colombian city, where all the wrong people (they are legion) pack guns and even day is a Series 7-style survival game whose object is to make it past sunset with your blood supply intact.
On IP PBX systems: "IP PBX is undoubtedly poised to grow explosively, despite a slow initial market adoption of IP telephony.
Over several weeks each tried to enlist the scholars on his side, while explosively rejecting the Rector's mediation.
Rugby began the second half explosively with two tries in the first three minutes.
org) placed it on their "Red Alert" list of species with potential to spread explosively.
The European low-cost market, dominated by UK-based operators, is growing explosively, he observes, and there's room for all the current players and probably more.
Plyometrics train the muscles to fire more quickly and to respond explosively, resulting in a runner who can run faster and more powerfully.
The newly opened Bullock's is part of a Macy's West/Bullock's plan to spend $550 billion to strengthen its position in the West over the next six years, a plan which may grow explosively with Federated's acquisition last week of The Broadway chain.
When heated by the Sun's closeness, cometary ice vaporized explosively, and the dust it contained formed the haze and the tail.
Sandlot has created an explosively fun game in EDF 2017, and we look forward to astounding gamers with the sheer scope and size of the game's colossal enemies and expansive environments.
Merrick McDonald, 42 and a colleague were showered with molten metal from an explosively formed projectile.

Full browser ?