Ophthalmoplegia

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Related to external ophthalmoplegia: Oculopharyngeal dystrophy, pigmentary retinopathy, Ophthalmoparesis

Ophthalmoplegia

 

a paralysis of one or more cranial nerves by which the eye muscles are innervated. Ophthalmoplegia may be congenital—a result of underdevelopment of the nuclei of the oculomotor nerves—or acquired as a sequela of inflammatory, toxic, or traumatic lesions in the brain. It can occur in one or both eyes.

Several forms of ophthalmoplegia are distinguished. External ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of the external ocular muscles with retention of function in the internal muscles. Internal ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of the internal ocular muscles with retention of function in the external muscles. Total ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of both internal and external muscle groups. With the external form, the eyeball becomes rigid, although the pupillary reaction to light is not affected. With the internal form, the movements of the eyeball remain normal, but the pupillary reaction disappears and accommodation and convergence are impaired. Ophthalmoplegia is treated by eliminating the underlying cause.

References in periodicals archive ?
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a descriptive term that refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by chronic, progressive, bilateral, and usually symmetric ocular motility deficit and ptosis.
Although some clinical presentations, such as progressive external ophthalmoplegia sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis; or a combination of cerebral degeneration and liver failure in Alpers syndrome, may be quite characteristic, most patients with mitochondrial disorders have variable and nonspecific presentation, especially in the early stages of disease.
Mutant POLG2 disrupts DNA polymerase gamma subunits and causes progressive external ophthalmoplegia.
Consequently, patients presenting with progressive external ophthalmoplegia and ptosis have been given the diagnosis of another mitochondrial disease or myasthenia gravis.
Clonal expansion of mitochondrial DNA with multiple deletions in autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia.