Ophthalmoplegia

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Ophthalmoplegia

 

a paralysis of one or more cranial nerves by which the eye muscles are innervated. Ophthalmoplegia may be congenital—a result of underdevelopment of the nuclei of the oculomotor nerves—or acquired as a sequela of inflammatory, toxic, or traumatic lesions in the brain. It can occur in one or both eyes.

Several forms of ophthalmoplegia are distinguished. External ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of the external ocular muscles with retention of function in the internal muscles. Internal ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of the internal ocular muscles with retention of function in the external muscles. Total ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of both internal and external muscle groups. With the external form, the eyeball becomes rigid, although the pupillary reaction to light is not affected. With the internal form, the movements of the eyeball remain normal, but the pupillary reaction disappears and accommodation and convergence are impaired. Ophthalmoplegia is treated by eliminating the underlying cause.

References in periodicals archive ?
The rapid onset and recovery of the neurological symptoms coupled with presence of internal and external ophthalmoplegia and characteristic nerve conduction studies helps us to differentiate tick paralysis from other conditions causing neuromuscular paralysis.
Mitochondrial DNA deletions in progressive external ophthalmoplegia and Kearns-Sayre syndrome.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a descriptive term that refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by chronic, progressive, bilateral, and usually symmetric ocular motility deficit and ptosis.
This family manifested dysarthria, dysphagia, external ophthalmoplegia, limb weakness, hypophrenia, deafness, and visual deterioration, in an autosomal dominant inheritance.
13] All patients showed signs of external ophthalmoplegia, which was severe in two cases.
Miller Fisher's syndrome (MFS), which was originally described in 1956, is characterized by the triad of external ophthalmoplegia, cerebellar ataxia, and the absence of tendon re?
Clonal expansion of mitochondrial DNA with multiple deletions in autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia.
Unilateral external ophthalmoplegia in Miller Fisher syndrome: case report.
Exclusion criteria included weak Bell's phenomenon (less than 50% of normal), positive phenylephrine test, jaw winking phenomenon, blepharophimosis syndrome, systemic or myopathic disorders with secondary ptosis such as myotonic dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, and Graves' disease, history of intra or extra ocular and eyelid surgery, sharp or blunt trauma to the eyelids, eyelid tumors and scars and patients with vertical squint.
Duane's retraction syndrome, fibrosis of the EOMs, and Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia have neurogenic and myogenic elements.
The A3243G mutation can have several different clinical manifestations, such as MEZAS [14], diabetes and hearing loss with or without macular-pattern retinal dystrophy [5,15,16], and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.