Although Tsuga canadensis greatly outnumber other species in all canopy layers, hardwoods, with the exception of Fagus grandifolia
, occur almost exclusively in the overstory as dominant trees.
The hemlock decline undoubtedly had implications for ecosystem properties; hemlock, as a long-lived conifer, which has a strong influence on microclimate, forest floor conditions, and soil chemistry (Benzinger 1994), was replaced to a large extent by hardwoods, including Quercus, Ulmus, Fagus grandifolia
, Acer saccharum, and Betula.
Suppression and release during canopy recruitment in Fagus grandifolia
Notwithstanding its proposed association with low rates of canopy disturbance, Fagus grandifolia
often is a major component in hurricane-frequented hardwood forests along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from New England to eastern Texas (Foster 1988, Platt and Schwartz 1990, Merrens and Peart 1992, Bill and Harcombe 1994, Batista and Platt 1997).
Percent total mass is the contribution of each species or plant part from the total mass combined (both alien and native species) Number of nests (weight in grams) Outer Inner Species Common name layer layer Leaves Fagus grandifolia
American Beech 18 (41.
Litter in these grid cells was estimated as comprising 33% Fagus grandifolia
litter, 39% Acer saccharum, 23% Betula alleghaniensis, and 5% Picea rubens (Bormann and Likens 1979).
The six most important species, based on RIV (in descending order), were Fagus grandifolia
, Acer saccharum, Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, Carya cordiformis and Quercus rubra.
The entire-margined species (Cercis canadensis, Cornus florida, Fagus grandifolia
, which is shallowly dentate, and Nyssa sylvatica) failed to show precocious photosynthetic activity in any part of the young leaf.
According to original land survey records, the most widely distributed tree species on the Erie-Ontario Lowland and Allegheny Plateau were Fagus grandifolia
and Acer saccharum (Gordon 1940, Seischab 1990).
Although a total of 27 tree species were included in the samples, in 1988, 80% of the relative density was contributed by only eight species; notably, Acer saccharum, Prunus serotina, Liriodendron tulipifera, Fagus grandifolia
, Sassafras albidum, Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra, and Quercus alba.
Pinus strobus 31 [+ or -] 4 1121 [+ or -] 447 Acer rubrum 18 [+ or -] 2 621 [+ or -] 320 Quercus rubra 12 [+ or -] 3 571 [+ or -] 476 Pinus resinosa 7 [+ or -] 2 29 [+ or -] 16 Tsuga canadensis 7 [+ or -] 2 6950 [+ or -] 1220 Acer saccharum 5 [+ or -] 1 1521 [+ or -] 453 Betula alleghaniensis 5 [+ or -] 1 1229 [+ or -] 440 Quercus ellipsoidalis 3 [+ or -] 3 743 [+ or -] 705 Fagus grandifolia
3 [+ or -] 1 129 [+ or -] 67 Quercus alba 2 [+ or -] 1 493 [+ or -] 228 Betula papyrifera 2 [+ or -] 1 279 [+ or -] 185 Fraxinus americana 2 [+ or -] 1 500 [+ or -] 281 Ostrya virginiana 1 [+ or -] 0 350 [+ or -] 146 Hamamelis virginiana -- 521 [+ or -] 258 Other * 9 [+ or -] 1 1271 [+ or -] 524 Species Mean saplings/ha [+ or -] S.
Mature flatwoods dominated by Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia
, Quercus rubra, and, near vernal pools, by Quercus bicolor; rich spring ephemeral flora; surrounded by housing subdivision, agricultural activity, and old fields.