Fast


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fast

1. Sport (of a playing surface, running track, etc.) conducive to rapid speed, as of a ball used on it or of competitors playing or racing on it
2. Photog
a. requiring a relatively short time of exposure to produce a given density
b. permitting a short exposure time
3. Cricket (of a bowler) characteristically delivering the ball rapidly

Fast

 

a ban for a certain period of time prescribed by some religions against eating any food or certain types of food, particularly meat, fish, and dairy products. The origin of fasts is connected with restrictions dictated by the cult in the very early class societies. The roots of the practice go back to remote antiquity, when insufficient food demanded self-restrictions in eating, which acquired the form of a ban, or taboo, sanctified by custom.

In modern religions, fasting is based on the doctrine of the preeminence of the spirit over the flesh. In Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, fasting serves to reinforce the piety of the believers.

In Eastern Orthodoxy, four lengthy periods of fasting are prescribed. Lent, or the Great Fast, lasts seven weeks; St. Peter’s Fast continues from one to five weeks, depending on when Easter is observed; the Assumption fast lasts two weeks; and the Christmas fast extends over six weeks. In addition, there are one-day fasts on Wednesday and Friday of each week and on certain other days, such as the vigil of the Epiphany and Holy Cross Day. During a fast, meat and dairy foods are excluded. In all, the Eastern Orthodox Church sanctions about 200 days of fasting per year.

There are no prolonged fasts in Catholicism. Fasts are observed on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and the vigils of Assumption and Christmas. With the exception of the Anglican Church, obligatory fasts are unknown in Protestantism.

In Islam, the main fast is the uraza, during which, throughout the entire month of Ramadan, eating, drinking, and smoking are forbidden each day from sunrise to sunset. There also exist individual fasts, practiced in fulfillment of vows or for “redemption” with regard to violations by the believer of the precepts of the Koran and the sharia.

In Judaism, there are both public fasts, prescribed as a sign of mourning, on days of repentance, and in memory of various events in the history of the people, and individual fasts in fulfillment of a vow.

In present-day circumstances, when for the sake of strengthening the shaky position of religion various churches have modernized their dogmas and liturgies, a more flexible approach has been taken toward fasts, which are not required to be as strictly observed.

A. V. BELOV, L. I. KLIMOVICH, and M. S. BELEN’KII

fast

[fast]
(graphic arts)
A relative term given to the speed of emulsion.

FAST

(body)
Federation Against Software Theft.

FAST

(language)

Fast

An asynchronous communications protocol used to quickly transmit files over high-quality lines. Error checking is done after the entire file has been transmitted.
References in classic literature ?
I turned and galloped to the further side of the meadow as fast as I could go, and there I stood snorting with astonishment and fear.
There was a little gray in the sky now; so I stepped into the woods, and laid down for a nap before break- fast.
And in a moment the Doctor found himself traveling so fast he had to hold his hat on with both hands; for he felt as though the ship itself were flying through waves that frothed and boiled with speed.
They set the mast in its socket in the cross plank, raised it and made it fast with the forestays, and they hoisted their white sails with sheets of twisted ox hide.
Almost each morning a letter from my owners would arrive, directing me to go to the charterers and clamour for the ship's cargo; to threaten them with the heaviest penalties of demurrage; to demand that this assortment of varied merchandise, set fast in a landscape of ice and windmills somewhere up-country, should be put on rail instantly, and fed up to the ship in regular quantities every day.
The night was fast closing in, and it was so dark that they attacked and defended themselves almost instinctively.
So he sprang into the water, and the Tin Woodman caught fast hold of his tail.
Then lift her quickly on to the horse behind you; clap your spurs to his side, and gallop away as fast as you can.
Now, the Saw-Horse remembered that this word was the command to go as fast as he could; so he began rocking along the road at a tremendous pace, and Tip had hard work -- running faster than he ever had before in his life -- to keep his feet.
The logs which bore them floated in the middle of the stream and were held fast in that position by the strong current.
We were now picking up speed a trifle, and he was not gaining upon us so fast as at first.
When it is all out, stretching directly across the stream, the men make their boat fast to one end of the net and drift along with it.