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parts for fixed connection of machine parts and structures. Parts of threaded connections, such as bolts, screws, studs, pins, nuts, wood screws, lag screws, washers, and cotter pins, as well as dowels, are included in the category.

The main parameter of threaded connections is the thread, whose shape and dimensions conform with standards. Bolts, nuts, and washers are used in bolted connections that do not require the cutting of a thread in the parts being joined. How-ever, space for the bolt head must be provided. Screws and studs are used in cases where location of the bolt is difficult or a hole through the part is undesirable. Washers are placed under nuts or bolt heads to prevent deformation of the parts being joined, to avoid scratching during tightening of nuts and screws, and to close the gap between the shank of the bolt and the opening provided in the part. Lock washers and cotter pins prevent loosening of bolts and nuts caused by vibration and impact. Fastenings are widely used in all branches of machine building. The size and shape of fastenings are standardized within each country, which is taken into account in manufacturing equipment for export.

In the USSR the current standards cover the types and sizes of mass-produced fastenings. Parts whose shape and size are determined by specific design consideration and by operating conditions, such as connecting rod bolts, are excluded from all-Union standardization. However, even for special fastenings the thread is usually standard. Standardization of fastenings facilitates their manufacture by multiple machining in factories producing metal articles.


References in classic literature ?
But the fastenings have not been tampered with," said the Earl.
As ravening wolves seize on kids or lambs, fastening on them when they are alone on the hillsides and have strayed from the main flock through the carelessness of the shepherd--and when the wolves see this they pounce upon them at once because they cannot defend themselves--even so did the Danaans now fall on the Trojans, who fled with ill-omened cries in their panic and had no more fight left in them.
Fastening one end of this at that point of the trunk, of the tree which was nearest the peg, he unrolled it till it reached the peg, and thence farther unrolled it, in the direction already established by the two points of the tree and the peg, for the distance of fifty feet - Jupiter clearing away the brambles with the scythe.
As soon as he entered, he examined carefully whether the glass closed without leaving any trace, and, doubtless satisfied with his observation, he opened by means of a small gold key the triple fastenings of a door in front of him.
In the meantime, Reed, who with the want of forethought of an Irishman, had neglected to remove the leathern cover from the lock of his rifle, was fumbling at the fastenings, when he received a blow on the head with a war club that laid him senseless on the ground.
The girl counted up the food in the sleigh; there was not more than two days' supply, and Kotuko looked over the iron heads and the deer-sinew fastenings of his harpoon and his seal-lance and his bird-dart.
I don't wonder that you are surprised,' said she, and I could see that her fingers were trembling as she undid the fastenings of her mantle.
It was pleasant, too, to fling wide the windows, pinching the fingers in unfamiliar fastenings, to lean out into sunshine with beautiful hills and trees and marble churches opposite, and close below, the Arno, gurgling against the embankment of the road.
Her countenance, a natural carnation slightly embrowned by the season, had deepened its tinge with the beating of the rain-drops; and her hair, which the pressure of the cows' flanks had, as usual, caused to tumble down from its fastenings and stray beyond the curtain of her calico bonnet, was made clammy by the moisture, till it hardly was better than seaweed.
With a single jerk I tore the priceless stuff from its fastenings, and there before me was revealed a narrow doorway behind the throne.
Scarcely were we clear when the foremast dropped down on the fastenings, dashing the jib-boom into the water with its load of demented human beings.
Meanwhile, the flames, leaping up at the balloon, already quivered on its illuminated sides; but the Victoria, released from her fastenings, spun upward a thousand feet into the air.