Fast

(redirected from fastness)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal.
Related to fastness: lightfastness

fast

1. Sport (of a playing surface, running track, etc.) conducive to rapid speed, as of a ball used on it or of competitors playing or racing on it
2. Photog
a. requiring a relatively short time of exposure to produce a given density
b. permitting a short exposure time
3. Cricket (of a bowler) characteristically delivering the ball rapidly

Fast

 

a ban for a certain period of time prescribed by some religions against eating any food or certain types of food, particularly meat, fish, and dairy products. The origin of fasts is connected with restrictions dictated by the cult in the very early class societies. The roots of the practice go back to remote antiquity, when insufficient food demanded self-restrictions in eating, which acquired the form of a ban, or taboo, sanctified by custom.

In modern religions, fasting is based on the doctrine of the preeminence of the spirit over the flesh. In Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, fasting serves to reinforce the piety of the believers.

In Eastern Orthodoxy, four lengthy periods of fasting are prescribed. Lent, or the Great Fast, lasts seven weeks; St. Peter’s Fast continues from one to five weeks, depending on when Easter is observed; the Assumption fast lasts two weeks; and the Christmas fast extends over six weeks. In addition, there are one-day fasts on Wednesday and Friday of each week and on certain other days, such as the vigil of the Epiphany and Holy Cross Day. During a fast, meat and dairy foods are excluded. In all, the Eastern Orthodox Church sanctions about 200 days of fasting per year.

There are no prolonged fasts in Catholicism. Fasts are observed on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and the vigils of Assumption and Christmas. With the exception of the Anglican Church, obligatory fasts are unknown in Protestantism.

In Islam, the main fast is the uraza, during which, throughout the entire month of Ramadan, eating, drinking, and smoking are forbidden each day from sunrise to sunset. There also exist individual fasts, practiced in fulfillment of vows or for “redemption” with regard to violations by the believer of the precepts of the Koran and the sharia.

In Judaism, there are both public fasts, prescribed as a sign of mourning, on days of repentance, and in memory of various events in the history of the people, and individual fasts in fulfillment of a vow.

In present-day circumstances, when for the sake of strengthening the shaky position of religion various churches have modernized their dogmas and liturgies, a more flexible approach has been taken toward fasts, which are not required to be as strictly observed.

A. V. BELOV, L. I. KLIMOVICH, and M. S. BELEN’KII

fast

[fast]
(graphic arts)
A relative term given to the speed of emulsion.

FAST

(body)
Federation Against Software Theft.

FAST

(language)

Fast

An asynchronous communications protocol used to quickly transmit files over high-quality lines. Error checking is done after the entire file has been transmitted.
References in periodicals archive ?
Light fastness, wash fastness and rubbing fastness were examined which provided the real image regarding the quality of dye.
Their success is mainly attributed to the wide variety of brilliant colours flexibility and ease of application and all round fastness properties (Gulrajani et al.
Works carried by researchers concentrated on dyes chemical structure, dyeing properties and condition of light fastness testing on light fastness properties.
Produced heterocyclic dyes have good fastness to light, sublimation and perspiration but show poor rubbing fastness properties.
The colour fastness to washing and light tests were carried out in accordance with ISO 105-C06 and ISO 105-B02, repectively.
Effect on substrates on fading characteristics was to obtain the fastness properties of both print durability and image stability.
Permanent Carmine P-FBB 04 from the Pigments and Additives Division is a blue-shaded naphthol AS pigment with good fastness properties.
The company offers an extensive range of light fastness and weathering testing instruments.
Work in Europe is also addressing issues of aging and weatherability, including the need for tests of water absorption, weight loss, weatherability, aging, color fastness, and resistance to fungi, algae and insects, according to Gilles Labat, R&D manager of CTBA.
This pigmented ink minimizes the ink bleed for bar codes and small text, and offers better light fastness than dye-based inks.
based company's director of growth, glossy, porous inkjet paper, while desirable for its instant drying, water fastness and compatibility with both dye and pigmented inks, allows ordinary ozone to penetrate the printed surface and attack dye-based ink.
With ink jet color intensity, ink hold out and fastness are most important.