feminization

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feminization

(ofoccupation) the process, historically, in which certain occupations which women have entered (e.g. school teaching, nursing) have become regarded as womens work, with a consequent loss of income and status.

Feminization

 

the development of feminine secondary sex characteristics in a male. Feminization may occur in male fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals, as well as in human males. It may be experimentally induced in castrated males by the transplantation of an ovary or by injection of female sex hormones (estrogens).

An example of experimental feminization is M. M. Zavadovskii’s transplantation of an ovary into castrated roosters in the 1920’s. After a successful transplantation of the female sex gland, the roosters lost their head ornamentation and acquired the plumage and sex instinct characteristic of hens. In castrated male mammals, such as guinea pigs and rats, transplanted ovaries or estrogen injections cause the development of mammary glands and nipples and the appearance of the female sex instinct. In human males, feminization takes place after therapeutic castration in certain diseases; removal of the testes at an early age leads to the development of a female voice and skeletal proportions.

The opposite phenomenon is masculinization, the development of male secondary sex characteristics in a female. In birds, masculinization occurs as a result of the secretion of male sex hormones by the hypertrophic (normally rudimentary) right ovary after removal of the left ovary. Masculinization may be induced in castrated females by injections of male sex hormones. (For masculinization in humans, seeVIRILISM.)

References in periodicals archive ?
Particularly when occupations are expanding, they may feminize not because men left but, as Rotella argues, because "women entered at a greater rate than did men" (1987, p.
Like Vanessa Beecroft with her chic/pom replicants, Gaskell tries to feminize the male gaze while keeping it phallic--that is, distanced, potent, supremely confident.
Indeed, she and many other environmental scientists worry that if if hormone-like contaminants can feminize male animals, these ubiquitous pollutants may also underlie troubling reproductive-system trends being witnessed in men.
When delivered to pregnant rats, a very low dose of dioxin can not only demasculinize but also feminize the sexual development of male offspring, a trio of new studies shows.
The Lacanian notion of the gaze, traditionally a male act that feminizes its object, yields interesting perceptions about inversions of gender power.
The name Woman Within feminizes our offer, symbolizing inner awareness, the "woman inside", and reflects our understanding of her needs," said Stephanie Sobel, Executive Vice President of the Special Sizes Group for Redcats USA.
Although some might take issue with a collection of work that feminizes cuteness, kitsch, escapist fantasy, and regression in general, it can't be denied that these qualities are also intrinsic to the art of Murakami, Yoshitomo Nara, and other male Japanese artists.
Schorr's brawny beauts might be jocks through and through, but she feminizes them all the same, and it looks like they never even knew what hit them.
Yet in rodents, dioxin feminizes - both physically and behaviorally - males exposed prenataily (SN: 5/30/92, p.