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(ofoccupation) the process, historically, in which certain occupations which women have entered (e.g. school teaching, nursing) have become regarded as womens work, with a consequent loss of income and status.



the development of feminine secondary sex characteristics in a male. Feminization may occur in male fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals, as well as in human males. It may be experimentally induced in castrated males by the transplantation of an ovary or by injection of female sex hormones (estrogens).

An example of experimental feminization is M. M. Zavadovskii’s transplantation of an ovary into castrated roosters in the 1920’s. After a successful transplantation of the female sex gland, the roosters lost their head ornamentation and acquired the plumage and sex instinct characteristic of hens. In castrated male mammals, such as guinea pigs and rats, transplanted ovaries or estrogen injections cause the development of mammary glands and nipples and the appearance of the female sex instinct. In human males, feminization takes place after therapeutic castration in certain diseases; removal of the testes at an early age leads to the development of a female voice and skeletal proportions.

The opposite phenomenon is masculinization, the development of male secondary sex characteristics in a female. In birds, masculinization occurs as a result of the secretion of male sex hormones by the hypertrophic (normally rudimentary) right ovary after removal of the left ovary. Masculinization may be induced in castrated females by injections of male sex hormones. (For masculinization in humans, seeVIRILISM.)

References in periodicals archive ?
And he did as today he is an asset to the community who nominated him as a peer educator for his efforts to prevent abuse of underage feminized males at the local gyms in the city.
Significantly feminized images were preferred for male, as well as female, faces.
The first hypothesis focuses on leaving versus staying in occupations that may have or may not have feminized in order to tests Rotella's (1987) contention that men do not leave feminizing occupations.
E]ven if the democratic, feminized, postindustrial world has evolved into a zone of peace where struggles are more economic than military," he observes, "it will still have to deal with those parts of the world run by young, ambitious, unconstrained men," such as, say, a future Saddam Hussein armed with nuclear weapons.
The question of why the fetish should be feminized is not directly addressed until chapter 5, where a dual answer (male-gendered fetishism implies female genital inferiority; granting perversion to women dislocates essentialism) is proposed in passing but not worked through.
While acknowledging the traditional reasons for fraternal membership--business contacts, friendship/brotherhood, fascination with ceremony and secrecy, sanctuary from industrialization and urbanization--Carnes demonstrates how fraternalism's secret rituals functioned as a male religious counterculture in unconscious opposition to an increasing liberal and feminized Protestantism and addressed the anxieties Victorian middle-class boys faced in making the psychological transition from maternal nurture to the aggressive and competitive domain of adult men.
In boys as well as in girls, higher prenatal dioxin levels were associated with more feminized play behavior," the study's authors wrote.
A draft statement by the Ministry of Labor said that all women's shops in the Kingdom will be fully feminized by 2015, in the third stage of the program.
She is most concerned with the ways these women sought to relate to the masculinized Victorian God and to the ways they articulated the feminized I in relation to God.
In this study, we investigated feminized responses to two estrogenic WwTWs in roach exposed for periods during life stages of germ cell division (early life and the postspawning period).
Although I initially thought the top 10 names for girls that year (Emily, Madison, Hannah, Emma, Alexis, Ashley, Abigail, Sarah, Samantha, and Olivia) were not, I discovered that most of them are, as it turns out, either saints, biblical women, or feminized forms of male saints or holy men--albeit lesser known ones.