Plants were treated with non-drought stress (75-80% of the field moisture capacity) and drought stress (45-50% of the field moisture capacity), which were maintained by using soil moisture sensor at anthesis or grain filling stage, respectively.
Two water treatments, including well-watered (75- 80% of field moisture capacity) and water deficit (45-50% of field moisture capacity) were imposed at either flowering stage (Initiated on July 29 in 2010 and July 31 in 2011, respectively) or filling stage at 20 d from anthesis (initiated on August 18 in 2010 and August 20 in 2011, respectively).
In this study, a nonlinear regression model was developed between PFWD modulus with density ratio and field moisture
5kg, and with a battery life of up to 48 hours typical usage, it enables the user to take field moisture
measurements with the minimum of fuss.
The samples collected in the field condition (unground and at field moisture
content) were then scanned using a Vis-NIR spectrometer.
The constancy of both the drought and flood stresses imposed in this experiment renders them particularly severe compared with field moisture
conditions, in which periods of moisture recovery and aeration would occur (Begg and Turner 1976).
The soils were adjusted to 75% of field moisture
capacity and maintained at 25[degrees]C for 4 weeks, after which they were air-dried and sieved to <2mm, and the final pH values checked.
The soil samples were weighed at field moisture
content and then oven-dried (105[degrees]C) for 24 h to determine soil wetness (g/g).
The following treatments were applied in shallow trenches randomly located across the site: (i) soil at in situ field moisture
content/short measurement times; (ii) soil at in situ field moisture
content/long measurement times; (iii) soil pre-wet/short measurement times; (iv) soil pre-wet/long measurement times.
Additional 15-g soil subsamples were placed in 100-mL Schott bottles and incubated either at field moisture
('aerobic' incubations) or with 7 mL of deionised water added ('saturated' incubations).