filibuster


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filibuster,

term used to designate obstructionist tactics in legislative assemblies. It has particular reference to the U.S. Senate, where the tradition of unlimited debate is very strong. It was not until 1917 that the Senate provided for cloture (i.e., the ending of the debate) by a vote of two thirds of the senators present; three fifths are now generally required. Yet, despite many attempts, cloture has been applied only rarely. The filibuster has been used by various blocs of senators for different purposes; for example, by conservatives resisting civil-rights legislation in the 1960s, and by liberals resisting cuts in the capital gains tax in 1991. At times the threat of a filibuster has been sufficient to prevent a bill from being debated and voted on. Bills favored by President ObamaObama, Barack
(Barack Hussein Obama 2d), , 1961–, 44th president of the United States (2009–17), b. Honolulu, grad. Columbia (B.A. 1983), Harvard Law School (J.D. 1991).
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 have been filibustered more often than those of any other president. The threat of a filibuster has also been used to prevent a vote on presidential nominees to executive and judicial posts, and in 2013 the Senate rules for those nominees were changed so that only a majority vote was required to end debate.

In the 17th cent. the word was applied to buccaneers who plundered the Spanish colonies in the New World. In the 19th cent. the term was used more in reference to adventurers who organized and led, under private initiative, armed expeditions into countries with which the country from which they set out was at peace. Complications between the governments involved were likely to result. There was a series of filibustering expeditions from the United States against Cuba, Mexico, and Central and South American countries in the 19th cent., some of them led by citizens of the United States, as those of John A. QuitmanQuitman, John Anthony,
1798–1858, American general and politician, b. Rhinebeck, N.Y. He settled in Natchez, Miss., where he practiced law and held a series of political offices, serving in the state legislature and as acting governor (1835–36).
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 and William WalkerWalker, William,
1824–60, American filibuster in Nicaragua, b. Nashville, Tenn. Walker, a qualified doctor, a lawyer, and a journalist by the time he was 24, sought a more adventurous career.
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, and some by rebellious citizens of the government they sought to overthrow, as those of Narciso LópezLópez, Narciso
, 1798?–1851, Spanish American soldier, b. Venezuela. After serving in the Spanish army during the Venezuelan revolution against Spain, he left his native country for Cuba (1823).
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 against Cuba. Texas, when it was still part of Mexico, was the scene of many such filibustering activities.

Bibliography

For works on legislative filibusters, see F. L. Burdette, Filibustering in the Senate (1940, repr. 1965), S. A. Binder and S. S. Smith, Politics or Principle?: Filibustering in the United States Senate (1996), G. Koger, Filibustering (2010), and R. Arenberg and R. Dove, Defending the Filibuster (2012).

For works on earlier senses of filibuster, see J. J. Roche, By-Ways of War: The Story of the Filibusters (1901), H. G. Warren, The Sword Was Their Passport (1943), and J. A. Stout, The Liberators (1973).

filibuster

1. Politics the process or an instance of obstructing legislation by means of long speeches and other delaying tactics
2. History a buccaneer, freebooter, or irregular military adventurer, esp a revolutionary in a foreign country
References in periodicals archive ?
the debate over the democratic legitimacy of the filibuster.
It remains to be seen whether Cruz's Senate colleagues would have the votes to shut down a would-be filibuster over the highway bill.
Never mind that they're now seeking to further restrict the same filibuster tool that they and their fellow Republicans used to unprecedented levels to grind legislative machinery to a halt when Democrats controlled the Senate.
The filibuster has grown in use and power over the decades to the point of dysfunction.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF FILIBUSTER REFORM IN CONGRESS A.
But in November, Democrats--who now hold a 53 to 45* majority over Republicans in the 100-member Senate--did what has long been considered unthinkable: They voted to change the rules to end the minority party's ability to filibuster most presidential nominees.
Fifty-two Senate Democrats and independents voted to weaken the power of the filibuster.
Bu when it all comes out in the wash, the real problem for the senator isn't that she missed the meeting (the other absentee, FYI, was Marco Rubio, the Florida Republican, who got no pushback down in his state, or in NH, over his filibuster nonappearance).
The Texas abortion bill that was defeated last Tuesday after a filibuster by Sen.
A filibuster is a delaying tactic, like a long speech, to stop a vote.
Under this principle, the filibuster itself is not unconstitutional if a majority of senators wish to allow it for institutional reasons.
THE FILIBUSTER, permitted by Senate rules since 1806, has been used by members of both parties since 1837.