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(fĭs`cho͝olə), abnormal, usually ulcerous channellike formation between two internal organs or between an internal organ and the skin. It may follow a surgical procedure with improper healing, or it may be caused by injury, abscess, or infection with penetration deep enough to reach another organ or the skin. When open at only one end it is called an incomplete fistula or sinus. The most common sites of fistula are the rectum and the urinary organs, but almost any part of the body may be affected. Rectal fistulas are often associated with colitis, cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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, sexually transmitted diseasessexually transmitted disease
(STD) or venereal disease,
term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, and
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, and other disorders. Usually a fistula requires surgery. In horses an abscess on the withers from chafing and infection is termed a fistula.



an abnormal passage between hollow organs or between an organ, body cavity, or focus of disease and the body surface. Usually in the form of a narrow canal lined with epithelium or granulations, it continuously discharges pus, mucus, bile, urine, or feces.

Congenital fistulas, for example, umbilical fistulas, are developmental anomalies. Acquired fistulas result from such chronic inflammations as osteomyelitis, from tumors, or from injuries. Fistulas are usually treated by surgery.

It is sometimes necessary to create artificial fistulas surgically. They may connect hollow organs, in which case they are called internal fistulas, or anastomoses. An example is gastroenteroanastomosis in cicatricial stenosis of the outlet of the stomach.

Gastrostomy is the establishment of an external fistula, or stoma, for artificial feeding. External fistulas also permit the discharge of urine or feces. For example, cystostoma is a fistula of the urinary bladder formed when the urethra is compressed by a tumor. With external fistulas, care must be taken to avoid irritating or infecting the surrounding skin.


Struchkov, V. I. Gnoinaia khirurgiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1967.


An abnormal congenital or acquired communication between two surfaces or between a viscus or other hollow structure and the exterior.


In ancient Roman construction, a water pipe of lead or earthenware.


Pathol an abnormal opening between one hollow organ and another or between a hollow organ and the surface of the skin, caused by ulceration, congenital malformation, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
This study aimed to evaluate abnormalities in coagulation in CD patients complicated with intestinal fistula and to investigate whether the coagulation status changed is associated with intestinal fistula of CD.
A contrast enhanced CT angiogram (CTA) was done that showed coronary artery fistula arising as multiple small vessels from the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) and draining into the pulmonary artery (PA).
Cx601 is a local administration of allogeneic (or donor-derived) expanded adipose-derived stem cells (eASCs) for the treatment of complex perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease patients that have previously failed conventional therapy.
Esophagoscopy also helps for direct visualization of TEF fistulas, but occasionally they can be missed as they are located in the upper 3rd and on the anterior wall9.
Type 1 simple fistulas were seen in 50% of the cases.
The bench was hearing a petition jointly filed by gynaecologist Dr Shershah Syed, non-governmental organisation Tehreek-i-Niswan and Kiran Sohail, a mother of six who had developed obstetric fistula after having her first child and was left untreated for over eight years.
Recognizing and managing a chylous fistula intraoperatively is the most effective approach to management.
The fistulectome: a new device for treatment of complex anal fistulas by "core-out" fistulectomy.
Due to its anatomical proximity, major airway-oesophageal fistulas predominantly occur as a complication of carcinoma of the esophagus.
An obstetric fistula is a hole in the birth canal caused by prolonged, obstructed labor.
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract fistula is a frequent complication of surgery or disease.