Flake

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flake

Archaeol
a. a fragment removed by chipping or hammering from a larger stone used as a tool or weapon
b. (as modifier): flake tool

Flake

 

in archaeology, the name for chips struck from a piece of flint or flint core by human hands. Flakes varied in shape and size. During the Stone and Bronze ages, tools, including knives, were made from flakes.


Flake

 

an internal crack in forged or rolled steel products, and sometimes ingots and cast articles, that markedly detracts from the desired mechanical properties of the steel. In pickled micro-sections, flakes are identified as hairline cracks; in the fracture testing of hardened specimens, flakes are oval, crystalline spots of a silvery white color distinguishable from the primary gray mass of the fracture. The steels most susceptible to flake damage are alloyed and carbon martensitic and pearlitic steels used for structural members, bearings, armor, and rails. Defects of this type are not found in austenitic or carbide steels (stainless and high-speed steels).

The principal cause of the formation of flakes is the presence of excessive hydrogen, and the mechanism most likely responsible is adsorption of hydrogen on the surfaces of microscopic irregularities, which reduces surface energy and makes destruction easier. Flakes originate in zones with heightened adsorption of hydrogen. The formation of such zones stimulates internal tensile stresses that arise in the steel during structural transformations, plastic deformation, and uneven cooling. Flake development is also promoted by a reduction in the metal’s resistance to destruction in places where stresses have concentrated near accumulations of defects of the crystal lattice, as well as by concentrations of nonmetallic inclusions and segregated inhomogeneities. Flakes may be controlled by thermal treatment of the parts under special conditions and by subjecting the molten steel to a vacuum, which reduces the hydrogen content to a safe level.

REFERENCES

Dubovoi, V. la. Flokeny v stali. Moscow, 1950.
Moroz, L. S., and B. B. Chechulin. Vodorodnaia khrupkost’ metallov. Moscow, 1967.

V. L. SAFONOV and M. L. BERNSHTEIN

flake

[flāk]
(materials)
Dry, unplasticized, cellulosic plastics base.
Plastic chip used as feed in molding operations.
A small, flat wood particle of predetermined dimensions and uniform thickness, with fiber direction essentially in the plane of the flake.
(metallurgy)
Discontinuous, internal cracks formed in steel during cooling due usually to the release of hydrogen. Also known as fisheye; shattercrack; snowflake.
Fish-scale, flat particles in powder metallurgy. Also known as flake powder.
References in periodicals archive ?
The flaker ice machines market has pretty much stayed flat or declined for the last 15 years, but there's still a sizeable number of flaked ice machines that are sold.
The new Buhler BCFA Series of flaking roller mills for breakfast cereal production comprises four machine types to meet all the requirements that modern flakers must satisfy.
With the exception of one batch of slash pieces debarked in a rod mill to determine if debarking was of value in preparing slash-based OSB, the bark was left on the branch segments fed to the flaker.
Tenders are invited for Supply And Installation Of Hot Air Oven And Ice Flaker Machine -866
Retrospective permission was given for the replacement multi-million pound flaker hall at the woodchip factory site in Kirkby, after one was lost in a huge fire last year.
Hinoki logs with diameters greater than 20 cm were waferized by a disk flaker and then hammer milled to reduce the particle size.
3 Knife Ring Flakers MRZ 1 drive required for the flaker rotor.
Planners at Knowsley council look set to grant planning permission for a multi-million pound flaker hall built to replace one lost in a huge fire at the Kirkby site last year.
The green wood strands were collected at the mill sites at the drop chutes of the conveyors near the output of the flaker machines before screening.
The plan is to manufacture a line of cuber and flaker ice machines for the developing Chinese market.
Knowsley council planners will this week consider approving a new multi-million pound flaker hall at the Kirkby site built to replace one lost in a massive fire last June.
The logs were processed in a rotary cut disk flaker and reprocessed in an agricultural grinder.