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flow rate[′flō ‚rāt]
in hydraulics, the volume of fluid flowing through a cross section of a stream per unit time. The flow rate Q of a fluid for a given cross section ω is determined by the formula
Q = ∫ωu dω
where u is the flow velocity within the limits of d, an elementary segment of the cross section. In steady flow, the flow rate of a dropping liquid is constant along a given stream. The average flow velocity of the fluid can be determined from the known values of the flow rate and cross-sectional area: v = Q/ω. The mass of fluid flowing per unit time through a cross section of the stream is called the mass flow rate M. This rate is related with the volume flow rate by the equation M = ρ Q, where ρ is the density of the fluid. The flow rate of a fluid is measured with water meters, measuring spillways, hydrometers, rate-of-flow meters, and other instruments.
REFERENCESAl’tshul’, A. D., and P. G. Kiselev. Gidravlika i aerodinamika. Moscow, 1965.
Chugaev, R. R. Gidravlika, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1970.