The gold standard for testing fluid responsiveness is a fluid challenge
, in which a volume of fluid sufficient to increase the preload is infused over a short period of time and the response of the ventricle is tested.
Therefore, since activation of renal elimination requires about 20 min, and distribution of crystalloid throughout the extracellular fluid space requires about 30 min for completion , we have excluded the first mini fluid challenge
related data from the present analysis.
Intravenous fluid loading is often used as first-line therapy for patients with hypotension or circulatory failure, but in only half of patients does cardiac output respond positively after fluid challenge
Renal perfusion assessment by renal Doppler during fluid challenge
induced plasma dilution (PD) during the mVLT is calculated from a change of hemoglobin concentration (Hb).
A variable was regarded as a predictor of fluid responsiveness if its baseline value correlated with the change in stroke volume associated with fluid challenge
Marmaite, "Goal directed fluid therapy revised: indirect monitoring of interstitial fluid accumulation during mini fluid challenges
with crystalloids", Open Conf Proc J.
As fluid challenge
can result in clinical deterioration, the ability to predict haemodynamic response is desirable In this way it might be possible to avoid unnecessary volume replacement in critically ill patients
is a common diagnostic method to help the physician determine fluid responsiveness, which is an important component of fluid management in critically ill patients.
Imminent oedema is suspected when the ability of a mini fluid challenge
to advance haemodilution is minimised (approaches zero) .
Following twice fluid challenge
tests, the systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, cardiac output and SV in the GDFT group were significantly higher, and the heart rate was lower than in the control group.
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