food additives


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food additives,

substances added to foods by manufacturers to prevent spoilage or to enhance appearance, taste, texture, or nutritive value. By quantity, the most common food additives are flavorings, which include spices, vinegar, synthetic flavors, and, in the greatest abundance, sweeteners (e.g., sucrose, corn syrup, fructose, and dextrose). Colorings are another type of additive. Most colorings are synthetic dyes, but some (e.g., chlorophyll, beta carotene, and caramel) are naturally formed chemicals. Preservatives are divided into antioxidantsantioxidant,
substance that prevents or slows the breakdown of another substance by oxygen. Synthetic and natural antioxidants are used to slow the deterioration of gasoline and rubber, and such antioxidants as vitamin C (ascorbic acid), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and
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, such as BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid, which help prevent fats and oils from turning rancid or fruit from spoiling, and antimicrobial agents, which hinder the growth of mold and bacteria (see botulismbotulism
, acute poisoning resulting from ingestion of food containing toxins produced by the bacillus Clostridium botulinum. The bacterium can grow only in an anaerobic atmosphere, such as that found in canned foods.
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). Additives that help produce a desired texture include emulsifiers, which keep substances such as mayonnaise from separating, and stabilizers, including gelatin, pectinpectin,
any of a group of white, amorphous, complex carbohydrates that occur in ripe fruits and certain vegetables. Fruits rich in pectin are the peach, apple, currant, and plum. Protopectin, present in unripe fruits, is converted to pectin as the fruit ripens.
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, and carrageenan, which prevent the formation of ice crystals in ice cream. Other food additives include nutrients and leavenings, such as yeast and baking soda. Food additives comprise approximately 10% (about 150 lbs) of the food consumed by the average American adult. Many health experts and consumers have become more vocal in their criticism of the excessive and potentially dangerous use of food additives, particularly food colorings. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administrations is responsible for testing the safety of and regulating the use of food additives.

Bibliography

See K. T. Farrar, A Guide to Food Additives and Contaminants (1987); M. Huls, Food Additives and Their Impact on Health (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
3) The definitions highlighted above clearly distinguish a food additive from a GRAS substance.
were evaluated, no ADIs were specified for these food additives.
In the tricky world of food additives, it pays to approach labels like a detective:
The use of a food additive is only allowed by approval of the EU Commission and only granted if it does not bear any risk to the consumer, if it is technologically necessary, and not intended to mislead the consumer.
One chapter, on the role of food additives and chemicals in behavioural learning, activity and sleep problems in children is provided by Australian authors, Joan Breakey, Conor Reilly and Helen Connell.
The food additives industry will experience major growth through 1996 and approach a total market size of $5 billion, according to a new Pathfinder report from TPC Business Research Group.
Food additives play a vital role in today's bountiful and nutritious food supply.
The Food and Drug Administration's Preamble to its final rule on "Colorants for Polymers," published August 30, states that "under normal conditions, colorants (1) have been shown to migrate to food from polymers, (2) are food additives, and (3) are subject to.
com/research/8skt68/analysis_of_the_sh) has announced the addition of Frost & Sullivan's new report "Analysis of the Shelf-life Food Additives Market" to their offering.
com/research/ntqsqw/china_food) has announced the addition of the "China Food Additives Market - Segmented by Type (Preservatives, Sweeteners, Hydrocolloids, Colorants, others), Application (Dairy & Frozen, Bakery, Meat products, Beverages, Confectionery, others)" report to their offering.
com/research/78h7pc/canada_food) has announced the addition of the "Canada Food Additives Market - Segmented by Type (Preservatives, Sweeteners, Hydrocolloids, Colorants, others), Application (Dairy & Frozen, bakery, Meat products, Beverages, Confectionary, others) & Geography" report to their offering.

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