forensic medicine


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forensic medicine:

see medical jurisprudencemedical jurisprudence
or forensic medicine,
the application of medical science to legal problems. It is typically involved in cases concerning blood relationship, mental illness, injury, or death resulting from violence.
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Forensic Medicine

 

a medical discipline that studies the biomedical aspects of the work of legal and investigative agencies. These aspects include the procedure and organization of forensic medical examinations, the study of externally caused ill health and death, and forensic medical examinations of living persons to establish whether a sexual offense has taken place or to detect injuries and determine age and the state of health. Forensic medicine is also concerned with post-mortem examinations and the examination of such material evidence as blood, bodily excretions, and hairs. Forensic medicine is closely associated with such medical disciplines as pathological anatomy, traumatology, and toxicology and with criminalistics, criminal and civil law, and criminal and civil judicial proceedings. As forensic medicine developed, forensic chemistry, forensic psychiatry, and forensic toxicology became independent branches of the field.

Forensic medicine emerged in the 16th century, when physicians were first consulted to determine criminal responsibility. The criminal code of Charles V, the Carolina (1532), provided for forensic medical examinations. Important works on forensic medicine were published in the 16th and 17th centuries, including the Treatise on the Physician’s Conclusions and the Embalming of Corpses (1575) by the French surgeon A. Paré and Problems of Forensic Medicine (1621) by the Italian physician P. Zacchias. The hydrostatic test, which determined whether a child had been born alive, was devised by K. Reiger (Poland, 1677) and I. Schreier (Germany, 1682). Departments of forensic medicine were later established in medical schools in France, Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and Belgium. Among those contributing to the development of forensic medicine and to the establishment of forensic medical schools in Europe during the 19th century were J. Casper (Germany), A. Taylor (Great Britain), I. Maski (Czechoslovakia), P. Brouardel and J.-A.-E.-Lacassagne (France), E. Hofmann (Austria), and M. Minovici (Rumania).

In Russia, forensic medical examinations were officially introduced in 1716 by the Military Regulations of Peter I. Owing to the small number of physicians, they were first conducted only in the large cities. Later, the posts of city and district physicians were established in major cities and districts; such physicians conducted forensic medical examinations as part of their duties.

Forensic medicine became legalized in Russian court practice in the first third of the 19th century. The Rules for Physicians in the Legal Examination and Autopsy of Corpses were approved in 1829, and the Regulations for Forensic Medicine, in 1842. The first Russian textbook on the subject, by S. A. Gromov, was published in 1832. Departments of forensic medicine were established in medical schools in the late 19th century. Members of these departments making important contributions to the theory and practice of forensic medicine included E. O. Mukhin, D. E. Min, P. A. Minakov, and N. V. Popov (Moscow University), F. Ia. Chistovich (St. Petersburg Military Medical Academy), A. S. Ignatovskii (University of Yur’ev), I. M. Gvozdev (University of Kazan), E. F. Bellin and N. S. Bokarius (University of Kharkov), and M. F. Popov and M. I. Raiskii (University of Tomsk). The journal Arkhiv sudebnoi meditsiny i obshchestvennoi gigieny (Archive of Forensic Medicine and Social Hygiene), founded in 1865 by E. V. Pelikan, aided in the development of forensic medicine.

A scientific research institute of forensic medicine was founded in Moscow in 1932, and the post of chief forensic medical examiner of the People’s Commissariat of Health of the USSR was created in 1937. The journal Sudebno-meditsinskaia ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Examination) has been published since 1958. The All-Union Society of Forensic Physicians was founded in 1946. Forensic medicine is taught in the higher medical and law schools of the USSR. Recent contributors to the field have included M. I. Avdeev, V. M. Smol’ianinov, V. I. Prozorovskii, and V. F. Chervakov.

Prominent foreign specialists in forensic medicine include D. Modi (India), L. Vacholtz and W. Grzywo-Dabrowski (Poland), A. Todorov (Bulgaria), M. Milovanovic (Yugoslavia), O. Prokop (German Democratic Republic), B. Müller and A. Ponsold (Federal Republic of Germany), C. Gerin and A. Franchini (Italy), L. Derobert and L. Roche (France), E. Somogyi (Hungary), J. Rekallio (Finland), and M. Helpern (USA). The International Academy of Legal Medicine and of Social Medicine was founded in 1938; Soviet physicians have been members since 1961. Foreign journals in the field include Zacchia (Rome, since 1921), Annales de médecine légale et de criminologie et de police scientifique (Paris, 1921–67; since 1968 called Médecine légale et dommage corporel), Medico-legal Journal (Cambridge, England, 1901–41; since 1973 called Medico-legal Society), and Journal of Forensic Sciences (Philadelphia, Pa., since 1956).

REFERENCES

Avdeev, M. I. Kurssudebnoi meditsiny. Moscow, 1959.
Gromov, A. P. Kurs lektsiipo sudebnoi meditsine. Moscow, 1970.

A. P. GROMOV and V. V. TOMILIN

forensic medicine

[fə′ren·sik ′med·ə·sən]
(forensic science)
Application of medical evidence or medical opinion for purposes of civil or criminal law.

forensic medicine

the applied use of medical knowledge or practice, esp pathology, to the purposes of the law, as in determining the cause of death
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Forensic Medicine Department (RPA) is part of the Department of Forensic Medicine at the University of Copenhagen who perform forensic examinations of justice and authorities in Denmark.
Regular supplies of medical izdeliyai accessories under the LEA for the needs of Clinical Laboratory, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Department of Clinical and pathological anatomy, histology and forensic medicine at USBALSSZ "St.
The source said in a press statement, "most of the dead were Arab and foreign nationalities and were killed in the bombing targeted the districts of Baiji and Sharqat south of Mosul, noting that "Daash" asked the forensic medicine in the city to hide the number of bodies of its dead, and prevent counting in the records.
Roof covering and roof sealing works, plumbing work for the new building for the Institute of Forensic Medicine and Pathology on campus Homburg.
A source in the forensic medicine told the National Iraqi News Agency / NINA / that "the department received the bodies of the Wali of Sinjar (governor ) 110 km west of Mosul, who has Arab nationality and called (Ibrahim Kerman) and eight senior leaders in Daash all were killed in bombing of the international coalition aircraft on their hideouts in Sinjar .
1 the present contract is the supply of laboratory equipment for the department of forensic medicine, medical university of warsaw, broken down into the following packages pn .
He was appointed a Fellow in Internal Medicine at the Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Medicine and is now a Fellow, Clinical Pharmacology and is Board Certified in Forensic Medicine.
A source in the forensic medicine told the Iraqi National News Agency / NINA /: "The roadside bomb targeted a patrol of the elements of Daash in the Hawi area, west of Mosul, killing six members of Daash and wounding three others.
Attorney-General Robert Clark has today opened a state-of-the-art facility to lead forensic medicine in Victoria.
The program gives the working Physician Assistant a choice of five specialty tracks: Family Medicine, Sports Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Forensic Medicine, and Occupational Medicine, all delivered via distance education.
A source in the forensic medicine in Mosul told the correspondent of the National Iraqi News Agency / NINA / that "elements of Daash executed journalist Thaer Ali, editor in chief of the (al-Nas) local newspaper by shooting him in the head in downtown Mosul and handed over the body to the forensic medicine department in the city.
Please note that bids must be submitted both electronically via TendSign and postal been signed to Forensic Medicine.

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