Formant


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formant

[′fȯr·mənt]
(acoustics)
A set of resonances of a musical instrument or voice mechanism that form partials of sounds produced by the instrument, independent of the fundamental frequency, and give these sounds their quality.

Formant

 

a term used in phonetics to denote an acoustic characteristic of speech sounds, especially vowels; formants are associated with the frequency of the voice and are responsible for the timbre of the sound. A formant is part of the frequency spectrum of a sound, which can be obtained in the laboratory by means of a sound spectrograph. The formant represents a range of frequencies defined with respect to an average frequency and designated by the letter F.

In a sound spectrum, several formants may be isolated, for example F1 = 500 hertz (Hz), F2 = 1,500 Hz, and so on. For men, the average interval between formants is 1,000 Hz; for women and children it is somewhat greater. In most cases, however, the first two formants are sufficient to distinguish vowels. F1 (150–850 Hz) corresponds to the articulatory feature of height, or the difference between close and open vowels, and is lower for close vowels. F2 (500–2,500 Hz) corresponds to the degree to which a vowel is front or back, being higher for front vowels and lower for back vowels. The sum of the frequencies F1 + F2 corresponds to the feature of roundedness; labialization causes a reduction in the frequencies corresponding to F1 and F2.

REFERENCES

Zinder, L. R. Obshchaiafonetika. Leningrad, 1960.
Fant, G. Akusticheskaia teoriia recheobrazovaniia. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)

V. A. VINOGRADOV

References in periodicals archive ?
The singer's formant cluster is tuned by the epilarynx and various microadjustments along the vocal tract, and is also perceived/felt to be higher, often in the area of the nasopharynx and in the bony structures of the front quarter of the skull (the so-called mask area).
05 level: Formant 1 was negatively correlated with the SANS alogia subscale score, Format 2 was negatively correlated with the PANSS negative symptoms subscale score and the SANS alogia subscale score; Formant 6 was significantly more prominent in male than female respondents; bandwidth was negatively correlated with the SANS affective blunting subscale score and stronger in female respondents than in male respondents; and MFCC was positively correlated with the PANSS general psychopathology subscale score and with the patients' total number of hospitalizations, and it was more prominent in male respondents than female respondents.
Through these studies, Lindau (1980b) points out that the lowering of the third formant may be obtained by retroflexion and by a constriction in the postalveolar palatal regions.
Fort the Fast-Fourier Transform, the audio segment is selected; it must be small, as for example a vocal, due to the fact that this analysis requires to be performed in a small portion of the audio, but with relevant information, as the signal formants present in the vocals.
Sacco's legal formants approach offers a dynamic understanding
First Formant (henceforth Fl) shows the high-low distinction.
Formant frequencies and bandwidths can be determined simply using an autoregressive (AR) model well known in speech processing as a linear predictive coding (LPC) model being an all-pole model of a vocal tract.
Depending on the performed task, aspects such as the second formant transitions, the inter-syllabic time and / or number of syllables per second were analysed as detailed below.
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The formant frequency can be moved as required, so, for example, male voices can be converted into female ones, and vice versa.
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MAB254) CHRISTOPHER FORMANT - IXL ENTERPRISES INC (IIXL).