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It typically inhabits moist environments on moderate slopes or occasionally at their base, which possesses a tough, impermeable upper layer of soil, known as a fragipan, that causes water to flow downhill similarly to the movements of a water slide, rather than soaking vertically into the soil.
These dense horizons present a slow deformation when subjected to compression under wet conditions, unlike fragipan, which shatters suddenly (EMBRAPA 2013).
alluvium, colluvium, residuum Limestone class No limestone, limestone in combination, limestone Drainage class Very poorly drained to excessively drained Soil taxonomic order Flooding frequency Soil layer restriction type None, fragipan or claypan, bedrock Soil depth (cm) Depth to either the bottom of the soil profile or soil restriction Water holding capacity (cm/cm) PH Base saturation ECEC/sum of bases Fragments (%) Organic matter (%) Clay (%) Sand (%) Elevation (m) Slope (%) 1 + sin (aspect/ 180 *3.
Pre-mining soils are largely order Alfisols and Subgroup Typic Fragiudalfs (Miles and Weiss, 1978) including infertile fragipan and claypan soils.
These soils were layered in different ways as follows: (Hagerstown) a silt loam Ap horizon underlain by a high clay content B horizon in the top meter, (Monongahela) a silt loam Ap horizon underlain by a fragipan in the top meter, and (Nolin) a silt loam alluvial soil underlain by a gravel layer in the top meter (Braker, 1981).
The soil is characterised by a fragipan or C horizon (depth range 400-700 mm depending on slope position) with restricted drainage properties and is classified as a Mottled Fragic Pallic soil by the New Zealand Soil Classification (Hewitt 1998) or an Aeric Fragiaquept by USDA Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff 1998).
That experience explored the functions of fractures in fragipan soils, including both a dyed pit study at ATI's Apple Creek farm and a fresh till cut at the Rupp Gravel Pit.
Letter Designation Characteristics a, e, i Refers to highly (sapric), intermediate (hemic), or slightly (fibric) decomposed material b Used with any horizon that has been buried by overlying deposits c Concretions present g Strongly gleyed (referring to the amount of reduced iron present) h Illuvial (from leaching above), accumulation of organic material m 90% cemented p Mixed by plowing r Weathered bedrock that can be dug with a spade t Accumulation of clay x Fragipan present z Accumulation of soluble salts
There was a putative fragipan at 40- to 60-cm depth at both sites.
The Barrens is characterized as gently sloping topography and low relief with fragipan associated in the soils that cause seasonal wetlands (DeSelm, 1994; Pyne, 2000).