freedom of the seas

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seas, freedom of the,

in international law, the principle that outside its territorial waters (see waters, territorialwaters, territorial,
all waters within the jurisdiction, recognized in international law, of a country. Certain waters by their situation are controlled by one nation; these include wholly enclosed inland seas, lakes, and rivers.
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) a state may not claim sovereignty over the seas, except with respect to its own vessels. This principle, first established by the Romans, gives to all nations in time of peace unrestricted use of the seas for naval and commercial navigation, for fishing, and for the laying of submarine cables. From the late 15th to the early 19th cent., Spain, Portugal, and Great Britain attempted to exclude commercial rivals from parts of the open sea. Protests by other nations led to a revived acceptance of freedom of the seas. One of its strongest advocates was the United States, especially in its dispute with Great Britain preceding the War of 1812. In time of peace, freedom of the seas cannot be restricted lawfully except by international agreements, such as those regulating fisheries or the right of visit and search (see search, right ofsearch, right of.
1 In domestic law, the right of officials to search persons or private property, usually obtained through some form of search warrant authorized by a court. In the United States, the Fourth Amendment to the U.S.
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). During war, however, belligerents often assert limitations of the principle in order to facilitate the more effective conduct of hostilities, and it is then that the sharpest disagreements arise, e.g., the case of the LusitaniaLusitania,
liner under British registration, sunk off the Irish coast by a German submarine on May 7, 1915. In the sinking, 1,198 persons lost their lives, 128 of whom were U.S. citizens.
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 in World War I. Subjects of contention between neutrals and belligerents include the right to seize neutral property and persons aboard an enemy ship (see prizeprize,
in maritime law, the private property of an enemy that a belligerent captures at sea. For the capture of the vessel or cargo to be lawful it must be made outside neutral waters and by authority of the belligerent.
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), the mining of sea lanes, and the exclusion of neutral vessels from enemy ports by blockade. The Law of the Sea treaty (1982, in force from 1994) established a 12-nautical-mile (22-kilometer) territorial limit for coastal nations and established an international authority to regulate seabed mining, among other provisions.


See C. J. Hill, Introduction to the Carriage of Goods By Sea (1974).

freedom of the seas:

see seas, freedom of theseas, freedom of the,
in international law, the principle that outside its territorial waters (see waters, territorial) a state may not claim sovereignty over the seas, except with respect to its own vessels.
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References in periodicals archive ?
9) Since nearly 40 per cent of the world's oceans can be claimed as EEZs, including in high-priority theatres such as the Western Pacific and the Persian Gulf, allowing China's concept of freedom of the seas to take hold in its near abroad could carry far-reaching implications for US grand strategy.
As a maritime nation with global trading networks, the United States has a national interest in freedom of the seas and in unimpeded lawful commerce.
After the excitement of Universal Orlando Resort, it was back to reality with a reasonably soft landing as we were transferred from our hotel to Port Canaveral in time to board Freedom of the Seas.
With 15 decks of entertainment options, dining, accommodation and amazing innovations at every turn, Royal Caribbean International's Freedom of the Seas offers cruise industry firsts such as the Flow Rider surf park, ice-skating rinks and rock climbing walls.
The ability of maritime nations to conduct expeditionary operations as an instrument of naval power is dependent on the legitimacy and currency of the long-standing doctrine of freedom of the seas in the coastal margins and inland seas.
Scholarly research reveals strong correlations between the principle of freedom of the seas, maritime spaces in international law of the sea, the provisions for the delimitation of the territorial sea, and the median-line system as a principle suitable for the delimitation of territorial seas.
The freedom of the seas is paramount and it is appropriate to reflect on freedom, in a maritime context, in this of all weeks.
Moreover, Erdogan said Turkey, a state that had the longest coast line in the East Mediterranean, would take every measure it deemed necessary for freedom of the seas.
The statement also condemns the Greek government for restricting the movement of flotilla ships, saying that this decision in in violation of International Law concerning Freedom of the Seas, and suggests that the Greek government has caved to political pressure from Israel.
The organizations also condemned the government of Greece for its decision to block a number of boats from leaving Greek ports, saying this is a violation of international law concerning freedom of the seas.
New Delhi, Delhi, June 10, 2011 /India PRwire/ - In conjunction with the arrival of DreamWorks Animation's 3-D feature film "Kung Fu Panda 2" in theaters, Royal Caribbean International is celebrating Pandamonium aboard Oasis of the Seas, Allure of the Seas, Freedom of the Seas and Liberty of the Seas with a series of onboard red-carpet premieres.
As people in Britain enjoy their Christmas meal, I hope they will spare a thought for the sailors, Royal Marines and support staff in the Gulf who will be working for their interests over the festive period, as they do 365-days-a-year, in support of maritime security and freedom of the seas.

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