Fricative


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Related to Fricative: Voiced fricative

fricative

[′frik·əd·iv]
(linguistic)
A primary type of speech sound of the major languages that is produced by a partial constriction along the vocal tract which results in turbulence; for example, the fricatives in English may be illustrated by the initial and final consonants in the words vase, this, faith, hash.

Fricative

 

(also continuant, spirant), any one of several obstruent consonants characterized by a turbulent sound resulting from the passage of air through a narrow stricture between incompletely closed articulatory speech organs. They differ acoustically from stops, in which the passage of air through the oral resonator is completely cut off, in that stops have a sharp on-glide and fricatives have a smooth, gradual on-glide.

Fricatives may be classified as central (nonlateral) and lateral. All Russian fricatives—[f], [s], [∫], [x] and the corresponding voiced consonants—are nonlateral fricatives, in which the air-stream passes through the center of the oral cavity. In lateral fricatives there is an obstruction in the center of the oral cavity, and the air passes around the sides; an example is the lateral [f] used in a number of Caucasian languages and American Indian languages. Fricatives with a nonlateral stricture are divided into groove fricatives, such as Russian and English [s], and slit fricatives, for example, English [θ] and Russian and English [f].

References in periodicals archive ?
These contacts resulted in the absorption of `foreign' sounds, the fricatives s and z in Cape York, for example (Capell 1970:240; Wurm 1972:52), and the appearance of Macassan loan words in Arnhem Land (McKnight 1972:295-304).
A parallel process affected the long close back vowel [o:] which, when followed by the velar fricative [x], was raised to [u:] in items like bozh 'bough', clozh 'clough', ynozh 'enough', plozh 'plough', slozh 'slough', tozh 'tough'.
According to Hyslop (2001: 16-17, 26) in all dialects of Ambae (see [22d]; Vanuatu) except for Lolokaro a fricative [s] developed from Proto-Oceanic /t/ before /i/, as in (23):
In both Nhanta and Wajarri, there is some phonetic variation between palatal affricates (the `j' sound in `jug'), fricatives (the `zs' sound in `Zsa Zsa') and glides (the `y' sound in `yes').
and problems of fricative voicing in Old and Middle English
It evidences the substitution of a palato-alveolar by an alveolar fricative.
Only occasional spellings testify to the occurrence of the change before the fricative since the above words retain the traditional orthography.
The frequency of the past tense form is a predictor as well, but only for a small subset of the data: verbs ending in a plosive or a velar fricative that have a high prediction difference cause more inconsistency errors if their past tense form is of a low frequency of occurrence (8.
There are linguistic reasons to believe, however, that the stone pillar is not a fake: the velar fricatives (Haudricourt's uvulars) are adequately represented in the inscription; it is quite doubtful that a fake stone pillar could have been engraved by a linguist who would have read Haudricourt's 1952 article on the uvulars in Thai.
74]), the West Germanic merger of *r and *z and the present-day pronunciation of English /r/ suggest, as the most likely possibility, a coronal fricative, flap or tap in Old English, with a "velarised" allophone in coda positions--in other words, articulations similar to those found in some varieties of modern English.
It is noteworthy that subhypothesis 2b is supported by a number of cases in which there is no range of fricative segments that bear a type of segmental modification.