frost


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frost

or

hoarfrost,

ice formed by the condensation of atmospheric water vapor on a surface when the temperature of the surface is below 32°F; (0°C;). In the formation of frost, a gas (water vapor) is changed directly to a solid (see dewdew,
thin film of water that has condensed on the surface of objects near the ground. Dew forms when radiational cooling of these objects during the nighttime hours also cools the shallow layer of overlying air in contact with them, causing the condensation of some water vapor.
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). Frost often appears as a light feathery deposit of ice, often of a curious and delicate pattern. The dates on which killing frosts (frost destructive to vegetation and staple agricultural products) occur vary considerably. Maps showing the growing seasongrowing season,
period during which plant growth takes place. In temperate climates the growing season is limited by seasonal changes in temperature and is defined as the period between the last killing frost of spring and the first killing frost of autumn, at which time annual
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 and the probable date of occurrence of frost may be obtained from the U.S. National Weather Service. The Weather Service stations issue warnings when frost is likely to occur; such warnings are broadcast by radio and are telegraphed or telephoned to farmers and fruitgrowers, who may protect their crops accordingly. Methods of protection vary: small flower beds and vegetable gardens are commonly protected by a screen or cloth that prevents excessive radiation from the earth and from the plants; in orchards, especially in California and Florida, simple oil-burning stoves or smudge pots placed at intervals throughout an orchard are used to heat and circulate the air sufficiently to prevent frost. Valleys are more subject to frosts than slopes, since cold air "slides" downhill and settles in depressions; orchards and citrus fruit groves are usually planted on slopes. Other factors in the occurrence of frost are altitude, latitude, proximity to large bodies of water, and other determinants of temperature. Frost, an element of climate, is an important agent of erosion. Frost heaving, an upthrust of ground caused by freezing, is a factor of consideration in engineering construction, especially in highway foundations. Frost is also a factor in the layer by layer mechanical weatheringweathering,
collective term for the processes by which rock at or near the earth's surface is disintegrated and decomposed by the action of atmospheric agents, water, and living things. Some of these processes are mechanical, e.g.
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 (exfoliation) of many types of rock masses. In England the word frost denotes freezing weather and degrees of frost means the number of degrees that the temperature falls below the freezing point.

Bibliography

See R. L. Berg and E. Wright Frost Action and Its Control (1984).

frost

[frȯst]
(hydrology)
A covering of ice in one of its several forms, produced by the sublimation of water vapor on objects colder than 32°F (0°C).

frost

The action (or result of such action) of the freezing of water vapor on a surface (e.g., the ground) that is colder than 32°F (0°C).

frost

Crystals of ice formed like dew but at a temperature below freezing.

frost

1. a white deposit of ice particles, esp one formed on objects out of doors at night
2. an atmospheric temperature of below freezing point, characterized by the production of this deposit
3. degrees below freezing point: eight degrees of frost indicates a temperature of either --8?C or 24?F

Frost

1. Sir David (Paradine). born 1939, British television presenter and executive, noted esp for political interviews
2. Robert (Lee). 1874--1963, US poet, noted for his lyrical verse on country life in New England. His books include A Boy's Will (1913), North of Boston (1914), and New Hampshire (1923)
References in classic literature ?
The fog and frost so hung about the black old gateway of the house, that it seemed as if the Genius of the Weather sat in mournful meditation on the threshold.
In the morning he looked out on the black frost that seemed to press cruelly on every blade of grass, while the half-icy red pool shivered under the bitter wind; but towards evening the snow began to fall, and curtained from him even that dreary outlook, shutting him close up with his narrow grief.
The poor tree was still quite covered with frost and snow, and the North Wind was blowing and roaring above it.
And blamed little you know Daylight, if you think frost kin stop 'm.
He breathes heavily, taking into his lungs the frost itself.
I'm so glad I live in a world where there are white frosts, aren't you?
There must be deep snow, hard frost, no wind, and a cloudless sky; and when, on waking up, I see these conditions fulfilled, then it would need some very potent reason to keep me from having out a sleigh and going off.
Its wild water defied the frost, and it was in the eddies only and in the quiet places that the ice held at all.
For frost and winter I now longed: "Oh, that frost and winter would again make me crack and crunch
A few instants later the platform was quivering, and with puffs of steam hanging low in the air from the frost, the engine rolled up, with the lever of the middle wheel rhythmically moving up and down, and the stooping figure of the engine-driver covered with frost.
I try in vain to be persuaded that the pole is the seat of frost and desolation; it ever presents itself to my imagination as the region of beauty and delight.
But the earth was hardened with the frost, and it was no very easy matter to break it up, and shovel it out; and although there was a moon, it was a very young one, and shed little light upon the grave, which was in the shadow of the church.