The stone bearing the inscription continued to deteriorate and through frost action
exfoliated and was lost.
The approach is to work from best available science to produce a practical engineering approach to assessment, in user-friendly terms, covering corrosion, frost action
, ASR and other expansive actions.
By turning over the soil, buried bugs in cocoon, larva case, or in their egg stage are exposed to being fed upon by birds and mice, as well as frost action
Under natural processes, both species exploit gaps in the vegetation produced by small-scale disturbances, such as frost action
and wind erosion, to survive (Hermanutz et al.
This lower stonework will again be vulnerable to frost action
, as well as being stained by the dirty water run-off.
Weathering phenomena may be physical; through frost action
or thermal expansion, chemical; through dissolution, hydrolysis, oxidation, or biological; through acid secretions from lichen growth.
Wood's buffering ability, along with it's natural resiliency, resists the frost action
that can eventually shatter harder materials like concrete and stone.