fructose


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fructose

(frŭk`tōs),

levulose

(lĕv`yəlōs'), or

fruit sugar,

simple sugar found in honey and in the fruit and other parts of plants. It is much sweeter than sucrosesucrose
, commonest of the sugars, a white, crystalline solid disaccharide (see carbohydrate) with a sweet taste, melting and decomposing at 186°C; to form caramel. It is known commonly as cane sugar, beet sugar, or maple sugar, depending upon its natural source.
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 (cane sugar). It is best obtained by hydrolysis of inulin, a polysaccharide found in dahlia bulbs and the Jerusalem artichoke. Chemically it is a monosaccharide (see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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) with the empirical formula C6H12O6. It has the same formula as glucose but differs from it in structure (see isomerisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
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). It is often found with glucose in nature. Glucose and fructose are formed in equal amounts when sucrose is hydrolyzed by the enzyme invertase or by heating with dilute acid; the resulting equimolar mixture of fructose and glucose, called invert sugar, is the major component of honey. Fructose reacts with Fehling's solutionFehling's solution
, deep-blue, alkaline solution used to test for the presence of aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde, HCHO) or other compounds that contain the aldehyde functional group, -CHO.
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 and can be differentiated from glucose by its reaction with lime water to form a water-insoluble precipitate, calcium fructosate. In solution, fructose exists as a ring compound in equilibrium with a straight-chain form.

Fructose

A sugar that is the commonest of ketoses and the sweetest of the sugars. It is also known as d -fructose, d -fructopyranose, and levulose fruit sugar. It is found in free state, usually accompanied by d -glucose and sucrose in fruit juices, honey, and nectar of plant glands. d -Fructose is the principal sugar in seminal fluid. See Carbohydrate

Fructose is readily utilized by diabetic animals. In persons with diabetes mellitus or parenchymal hepatic disease, the impairment of fructose tolerance is relatively small and not at all comparable to the diminution in their tolerance to glucose. See Monosaccharide

Fructose

 

(fruit sugar, levulose, (β-D-fructose), a colorless crystalline substance, with a sweet taste (1.5 times sweeter than saccharose and three times sweeter than glucose) and a melting point of 102°–104°C.

Fructose is soluble in water. A monosaccharide, it occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables, such as apples and tomatoes, and in honey (approximately 50 percent) and is a constituent of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. The phosphates of fructose, such as fructose-l,6-diphosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, are intermediate compounds in the dark phase of photosynthesis (Calvin cycle), in major metabolic processes (glycolysis, alcoholic fermentation), and in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates.

Fructose is a valuable food product and is easily assimilated by the organism. It is obtained from fruits by the hydrolysis of saccharose and inulin, as well as by the action of alkalies on D-glucose. In addition to the furanose (natural) form, the open ketone form and other tautomeric forms of fructose are known. Fructose is used in the food-processing industry and in medicine. Fructose-1,6-diphosphate is a drug administered to persons suffering from shock or various heart conditions.

fructose

[′fru̇k‚tōs]
(biochemistry)
C6H12O5 The commonest of ketoses and the sweetest of sugars, found in the free state in fruit juices, honey, and nectar of plant glands. Also known asD-fructopyranose.

fructose

a white crystalline water-soluble sugar occurring in honey and many fruits. Formula: C6H12O6
References in periodicals archive ?
Johnson, a professor of medicine in the department of renal diseases and hypertension at the University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, discussed the role of role of sugar and fructose in the development of diabetes as well.
Prolonged use of high fructose corn syrup is bad for the kidneys and liver, according to medical studies.
In the new study, the researchers exposed naked mole-rats to low oxygen conditions in the laboratory and found that they released large amounts of fructose into the bloodstream.
However, the research, also uncovered some good news: Rats that consumed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid found in fish, walnuts, and flaxseed, among other sources) along with the fructose water appeared to be protected from brain damage.
Slides of the tissue samples showed that 5-week fructose consumption produced changes in kidneys that included tubular damage in the cortex and outer stripe of the medullas and excessive interstitial collagen deposits.
Editor's Note: "We determined that it was specifically fructose, in table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup, ubiquitous within our food system, which was responsible for facilitating lung metastasis and 12-HETE production in breast tumors," said Professor Cohen, of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
Accepted standards on carbohydrate ingestion studies that promote glucose and FFA responses have always been performed with intravenous infusions of glucose and fructose or with oral ingestion of glucose polymers, sucrose, glucose or fructose isolated taken in liquid or solid states (5,24,30).
The net result of excess consumption of added fructose is derangement of both overall metabolism and global insulin resistance, the authors said.
The study found that fructose ingestion "acutely and robustly" increases circulating FGF21 levels in humans.
Animal studies suggest that fructose ingestion induces hyperinsulinaemia as a consequence of the sympathetic nervous system stimulation11 and fructose induced hypertriglyceridaemia12 leads to the production of superoxide radicals which contributes to oxidative stress (OS) and leads to reduced amount of NO in the vasculature.
ISLAMABAD -- Soda consumers may be getting a much higher dose of the harmful sugar fructose than they have been led to believe, an alarming research suggests.