In Brazil, surveys on bat communities tend to be characterized by a marked predominance of few most abundant species, in particular phyllostomid frugivores
, while most species are rare (e.
rotundus was the second most common species in the dry season, it was only the fifth most abundant in the rainy season, when the frugivores
became prominent in terms of both the number of species and individuals (Figure 3).
Habitat-dependent fruiting behaviour of an understory tree, Miconia centrodesma, and tropical treefall gaps as keystone habitats for frugivores
in Costa Rica.
Fruit quantity of invasive shrubs predicts the abundance of common native avian frugivores
in central Pennsylvania.
bats) are echolocating insectivores; the majority of the rest are frugivores
A typically species-rich Amazonian community usually possesses the large sympatric frugivores
Ateles and Lagothrix, two species of Saguinus (not so in the Duda river), two species of Callicebus and two species of Cebus (not in the peripheral Duda river).
Effects of "Selective" Timber Extraction on Rain Forest Structure and Composition and Some Consequences for Frugivores
Its seeds (13 to 20 mm in diameter) are dispersed by vertebrate frugivores
, mainly bats and other mammals (Peters, 1991; Pennington & Sarukhan, 1998).
Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that frugivores
and scatter-hoarding animals are capable of providing three benefits frequently ascribed to seed dispersal (Howe & Smallwood, 1982): escape from density or distance-dependent mortality (e.
Conservation of large avian frugivores
and the management of Neotropical protected areas.
The feeding habits were defined through field observations and literature data (SICK, 1997; KRUGEL, 1998), considering the predominant food item: carnivores (CAR), necrophages (NEP), frugivores
(FRU), granivores (GRA), insectivores (INS), nectarivores (NEC) and omnivores (ONI).
For example, expressions like 'Frugivores
/Herbivores' (Eisenberg, 1981) indicate on concealed hierarchy: Frugivores
(Omnivores, Granivores, Herbivores).