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A chemical compound which acts in the gaseous state to destroy insects and their larvae and other pests; examples are dichlorethyl ether, p-dichlorobenzene, and ethylene oxide.



a toxic substance used in the gaseous or vapor state to destroy harmful insects and causative agents of plant diseases. Fumigants constitute a class of pesticides.

One of the most commonly used fumigants is methyl bromide, which is used to kill soil-borne insects and agricultural pests (rate of application, 26–60 g/m3; permissible vapor concentration in a work area, 1 mg/cm3). Other common fumigants include 1,2-dichloroethane, which is employed for soil fumigation against insects of the Phylloxeridae family (800–1,200 kg per hectare [ha]); Nemagon, which is used for fumigation against soil insects (200–300 kg/ha); and D-D Mixture, which is a preparation consisting of dichloropropanes (500–1,000 liters/ha) and is also used for soil fumigation. Hydrocyanic acid, another widely used fumi-gant, is prepared in gaseous form at the fumigation site from such salts as sodium cyanide and tsianplav (a mixture of calcium cyanide and sodium cyanide); it is used to control populations of susliks (120–150 g/ha) and to fumigate tea bushes, citrus trees (under tents), planting stock, and mills, including groats mills (100–125 g/m3). Flies and other flying insects in closed areas are destroyed with aerosol insecticides.

Gas masks and other protective devices are used when working with fumigants. Since many fumigants are explosive and flammable, some of them—such as dichloroethane and carbon disulfide—are mixed with fire-extinguishing chemicals; for example, carbon tetrachloride is added to dichloroethane. Moreover, possible sources of combustion and explosion are removed; electric welding, the striking of matches, and the lighting of fires are forbidden in the area being fumigated. Rubber hoses are used for decanting flammable liquids.


Mel’nikov, N. N. Khimiia i tekhnologiia pestitsidov. Moscow, 1974.
Spravochnik po pestitsidam. Edited by L. I. Medved’. Kiev, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
Higher amounts of fumigants under TIF were observed after the 2-week tarp covering in fall 2009 than under polyethylene (fig.
Intuitively, fumigant movement in timbers should be similar to that in poles, but timbers are usually used horizontally and generally have a higher surface-to-volume ratio that could permit somewhat faster loss of fumigant.
The researchers used different types of plastic tarps, selected sites that included different soil types, and recorded the temperatures and moisture levels of the soil at times when the fumigants were applied.
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But VHP remains officially unregistered by the EPA as an anti-anthrax fumigant, Sgroi notes.
At GEAPS, Cytec will be partnering with Horn Technologies Inc, the manufacturer of the unique Horn Diluphos System which allows on-site blending of Cytec s VAPORPH3OSA phosphine fumigant with ambient air.
Carol Shennan, Professor of Agroecology, Environmental Studies Department, UC Santa Cruz states, "We are pleased to continue our partnership with the California Strawberry Commission to find practical ways to control soil borne diseases without the use of fumigants.
In addition to the need for safe and practical delivery methods for fumigants or other preplant treatments to tree sites, there is an associated need for an efficient tree site mapping process; preplant treatments typically occur months before tree planting, and it can be a logistical challenge to accurately place and relocate tree sites throughout the period before planting when cultivation, surface sealing and other cultural operations remove physical tree site markers.
Groundline treatments consisted of fumigants, borate rods, fluoride rods, borate- and fluoride-based paste, and pentaehlorophenol grease used either alone or in combination (Table 2).
Rosskopf and Kokalis-Burelle completed large-scale demonstration field trials comparing the effectiveness of two recently developed fumigants with methyl bromide at two Florida sites, one where they are raising delphiniums and the other caladiums.
Trials suggest that birds prefer organic to conventional seeds, which is not surprising considering the host of chemical pesticides and fumigants typically used in bird food production.
PAN's calls for reform include setting phase-out goals for bad-actor pesticides, banning soil fumigants, putting greater priority on transitioning to less toxic pest control methods and allotting more funding for research.