Gall Midges

(redirected from gall midge)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

Gall Midges

 

(Cecidomyiidae or Itonididae), a family of mosquito-like insects of the order Diptera. The dimensions of the gall midge are small (1-5 mm), and the nervation of the wings is simple. The larvae, which are narrowed at the ends and are red, orange, or green, carry a chitinous sternal spatula on the ventral side. Larvae of the lower Cecidomyiidae develop in the rotting remains of plants, and those of the higher Cecidomyiidae in the tissues of plants, causing the formation of galls (hence the designation “gall midge”); the species of a gall midge is determined according to the species of its plant host and according to the shape of the gall it forms. Adult gall midges live approximately 20 days, and they do not feed. About 3,500 species are known. Gall midges are found in Europe, Asia, and North America. There are about 500 species in the USSR. Because they develop in the tissues of plants, many gall midges cause serious damage to agriculture and forests. The most dangerous species are the Hessian fly; the millet midge; the wheat midge (Contarinia tritici), which damages the ears of rye and wheat; the rye-stem gnat (Hybolasioptera cerealis), which damages the bundles of stalks in many cultivated cereals; the pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora); and the raspberry midge (Lasioptera rubi), which damages horticultural gardens. Protection against gall midges is often very difficult; it is based on agrotechnical and other measures.

A. B. LANGE

References in periodicals archive ?
In particular, midges that develop in Borrichia are statistically larger and genetically distinct from the populations associated with the 2 species of Iva and much evidence suggests that the original host plant of the gall midge was sea oxeye daisy (B.
The attractant decoy hypothesis and other explanatory mechanisms requiring host switching by the gall midge are unlikely, given that host choice experiments showed minimal cross-genus oviposition by A.
2011) raise the possibility that cranberry tipworm arrived later than blueberry gall midge, possibly as a hitchhiker on plant material from other cranberry-growing regions.
Before Sampson's discovery, no one imagined the gall midge was victim of these bizarre natural predators.
The objectives of this experiment were to determine the developmental threshold and thermal constant for blueberry gall midge pupation, and apply this information to field trap data to estimate optimal times for control measures.
They develop inside the bodies of the gall midge larvae, eventually killing them.
Yokomi and colleagues have also found a previously unrecognized parasite of aphids in Florida, a gall midge that parasitizes up to 50 percent of spirea aphid populations in dooryard citrus trees and ornamentals.
In addition to the pygmy locust, Dr Heads and his colleagues have found mating flies, stingless bees, gall midges, Azteca ants, wasps, bark beetles, mites, spiders, plant parts and even a mammal hair.
Articles of about 20 pages then discuss such aspects of the science as pathogenomics of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex, the role of nematode peptides and other small molecules in plant parasitism, new grower-friendly methods for monitoring plant pathogens, gall midges (Hessian flies) as plant pathogens, and receptor kinase signaling pathways in plant-microbe interactions.