gamma globulin

(redirected from gammaglobulin)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

gamma globulin,

a group of globulinglobulin,
any of a large family of proteins of a spherical or globular shape that are widely distributed throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Many of them have been prepared in pure crystalline form.
..... Click the link for more information.
 proteins in human blood plasma, including most antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
..... Click the link for more information.
. These antibody substances are produced as a protective reaction of the body's immune system to the invasion of disease-producing organisms (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
..... Click the link for more information.
). Injections of gamma globulin are used to create a rapid but temporary immunity in patients who have been exposed to certain diseases. Children who have been exposed to, but are not immunized against, measlesmeasles
or rubeola
, highly contagious disease of young children, caused by a filterable virus and spread by droplet spray from the nose, mouth, and throat of individuals in the infective stage.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and patients with hepatitishepatitis
, inflammation of the liver. There are many types of hepatitis. Causes include viruses, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, parasites and bacteria, and certain drugs.
..... Click the link for more information.
 receive some protection from gamma globulin when it is administered during the incubation period of the infection. The gamma globulin used for such purposes is extracted from blood plasma from a large, diverse adult population; the resulting mixture is thus likely to contain antibodies from individuals who had been exposed to the appropriate infections.

Gamma Globulin

 

a fraction of globulins in blood plasma containing the most antibodies. In comparison with other protein fractions of the blood, gamma globulin has the slowest electrophoretic mobility. Gamma globulin is obtained either from the blood of donors or from blood from the placenta. So-called specific gamma globulin with an especially high content of antibodies to specific pathogens is isolated from the serum of humans or animals that have been immunized with the corresponding antigens. For example, anti-whooping-cough gamma globulin is prepared from the serum of humans hyperimmunized with whooping-cough vaccine; antirabies gamma globulin comes from the serum of horses hyperimmunized against rabies. Concentrated solutions of gamma globulin contain considerably more antibodies than the initial serums. In the USSR gamma globulin is produced in the form of a 10 percent solution (introduced intramuscularly). Gamma globulin is used for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases mainly in children (measles, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, epidemic hepatitis, and other diseases). Gamma globulin also has a certain nonspecific (stimulating) effect and for this reason it is prescribed for children with chronic inflammations, decline in appetite, and so on.

gamma globulin

[′gam·ə ′gläb·yə·lən]
(immunology)
Any of the serum proteins with antibody activity.
References in periodicals archive ?
I have infusions of gammaglobulin (a substance from blood which contains antibodies against infection) every three weeks which have kept me going all these years.
All I can remember is being in and out of hospital, giving numerous blood samples, tablets, injections and weekly injections of gammaglobulin.
The patient was given ganciclovir and hyperimmune gammaglobulin (Cytotect); Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia also developed, and the patient died 3 weeks after the onset of candidemia, with severe graft-versus-host disease stage IV, complicated by candidemia and CMV disease.
The ongoing Phase III study of GAMMAGARD, called the Gammaglobulin Alzheimer's Partnership (GAP) Study, is designed to evaluate the potential of GAMMAGARD for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
HIP 5836 behaved as a typical T5 and was opsonized by Altastaph(TM), an experimental human hyperimmune gammaglobulin containing T5 and T8 CP-specific antibodies.
China has a great demand for albumin, due to the large number of liver disease patients; the other blood products also have a considerable demand in China such as gammaglobulin, immunoglobulin and plasma thromboplastin component.
Sales of Baxter's genetically engineered blood-clotting factor for the treatment of hemophilia grew rapidly, along with its intravenous gammaglobulin therapy for the treatment of immune disorders.
As announced on January 30th, the Company is considering an additional clinical trial to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of hyperimmune intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIg), sourced from a specific patient population, for treating melanoma.
a privately held pharmaceutical firm, has started enrollment of patients with severe juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) in a Phase II clinical trial of oral human gammaglobulin (IgPO).
The assets acquired include two pharmacies located in Jacksonville, Florida and Temecula, California which are engaged in the pharmaceutical care of certain chronic, long-term patients, including those requiring growth hormone, hemophilia and intravenous gammaglobulin products and services.
Thiomerosal in gammaglobulins for pregnant travelers may not be safe for the fetus.