gamma

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gamma

1. the third letter in the Greek alphabet (Γ, γ), a consonant, transliterated as g. When double, it is transcribed and pronounced as ng
2. the third highest grade or mark, as in an examination
3. a unit of magnetic field strength equal to 10--5 oersted. 1 gamma is equivalent to 0.795 775 × 10--3 ampere per metre
4. Photog Television the numerical value of the slope of the characteristic curve of a photographic emulsion or television camera; a measure of the contrast reproduced in a photographic or television image
5. 
a. involving or relating to photons of very high energy
b. relating to one of two or more allotropes or crystal structures of a solid
c. relating to one of two or more isomeric forms of a chemical compound, esp one in which a group is attached to the carbon atom next but one to the atom to which the principal group is attached

gamma

(gam -ă) (γ) The third letter of the Greek alphabet, used in stellar nomenclature usually to designate the third-brightest star in a constellation or sometimes to indicate a star's position in a group.

Gamma

 

(1) A conventional unit that is sometimes used for measurements of small masses: 1 gamma = 10-6 g. The designation “microgram” (μg) is more frequently used than “gamma.”

(2) The name of a hundred-thousandth part of an oersted (the unit of magnetic field strength in the cgs system of units) that is used mainly for measurements of terrestrial magnetism and cosmic magnetic fields. It is designated by y.


Gamma

 

the quantitative characteristic of the ability of photographic material to transmit the difference in exposure H of various parts of a photographic image by the difference in the optical density D of the parts. The gamma is equal to the tangent of the angle of inclination to the axis log H of the straight portion of the performance curve of the material (provided that the scales of the axes log H and D are identical). Other conditions being equal, the gamma characterizes the uniformity of the silver halide crystals of the photographic emulsion with respect to light sensitivity. As a rule, it is greater for low-sensitivity positive materials and less for high-sensitivity negative materials. The gamma is one of the most important sensitometric parameters of a photographic material.

gamma

[′gam·ə]
(chemistry)
The gamma position (the third carbon atom in an aliphatic carbon chain) on a chemical compound.
(electromagnetism)
A unit of magnetic field strength, equal to 10 microoersteds, or 0.00001 oersted.
(graphic arts)
A numerical indication of the degree of contrast in a television or photographic image; equal to the slope of the straight-line portion of the H and D curve for the emulsion or screen.
(mechanics)
A unit of mass equal to 10-6 gram or 10-9 kilogram.

GAMMA

(language)
1. A language for matrices and generation of mathematical programming reports.

["GAMMA 3.3 for MPS/MPSX, IBM System:/360", Bonnor & Moore Assocs (Mar 1975)].

2. A high-level parallel language.

[Research Directions in High-Level Parallel Languages, LeMetayer ed, Springer 1992].

gamma

The way brightness is distributed across the intensity spectrum by a monitor, printer or scanner. Depending on the device, the gamma may have a significant effect on the way colors are perceived. Gamma is technically the relationship between the input voltage and resulting intensity of the output. A perfect linear device would have a gamma of 1.0 and be plotted on a graph called a "tone curve" as a straight line. Although a scanner is fairly linear, the tone curve of a monitor or printer is bent, yielding a gamma in the range of 1.8 to 2.6, which effects midrange tones. See gamma correction.
References in periodicals archive ?
Some of the accelerated particles slam into the chromosphere, striking atoms and triggering a burst of highly energetic X-rays and gamma rays, as well as visible light - the hallmark of a flare.
These same electrons also appear to generate gamma rays when they strike dense matter during a flare.
Energetic protons colliding with other particles in the jet may generate the gammas, he speculates.
For the first time, astronomers have detected high-energy gamma rays photons millions of times more energetic than the most powerful X-rays - from an object outside our galaxy,
The more distant finding comes from an ongoing sky survey of gamma rays, radiation more energetic than X-rays.
Rapid fluctuations in gamma rays emitted by the blazars and BL Lacs support this model.
Gamma rays pack more energy than any other radiation in the universe.
The other two gamma-ray pulsars emit their gamma flashes twice during each rotation; scientists have speculated that one flash comes from the north magnetic pole, the other from the south.
Detectors submerged in the top half will search for cosmic rays, while devices lying near the bottom will record neutrinos in an attempt to help discriminate charged cosmic rays from gammas.
Armini, CEO of Implant Sciences, commented, "These grants are a welcomed vote of confidence in our strategy to develop temporary and permanent brachytherapy products utilizing our soft gamma radiation technology.
Gamma rays of lower energy (around 1 million or 10.