gamma globulin

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Related to gammopathy: polyclonal gammopathy

gamma globulin,

a group of globulinglobulin,
any of a large family of proteins of a spherical or globular shape that are widely distributed throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Many of them have been prepared in pure crystalline form.
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 proteins in human blood plasma, including most antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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. These antibody substances are produced as a protective reaction of the body's immune system to the invasion of disease-producing organisms (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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). Injections of gamma globulin are used to create a rapid but temporary immunity in patients who have been exposed to certain diseases. Children who have been exposed to, but are not immunized against, measlesmeasles
or rubeola
, highly contagious disease of young children, caused by a filterable virus and spread by droplet spray from the nose, mouth, and throat of individuals in the infective stage.
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 and patients with hepatitishepatitis
, inflammation of the liver. There are many types of hepatitis. Causes include viruses, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, parasites and bacteria, and certain drugs.
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 receive some protection from gamma globulin when it is administered during the incubation period of the infection. The gamma globulin used for such purposes is extracted from blood plasma from a large, diverse adult population; the resulting mixture is thus likely to contain antibodies from individuals who had been exposed to the appropriate infections.

Gamma Globulin

 

a fraction of globulins in blood plasma containing the most antibodies. In comparison with other protein fractions of the blood, gamma globulin has the slowest electrophoretic mobility. Gamma globulin is obtained either from the blood of donors or from blood from the placenta. So-called specific gamma globulin with an especially high content of antibodies to specific pathogens is isolated from the serum of humans or animals that have been immunized with the corresponding antigens. For example, anti-whooping-cough gamma globulin is prepared from the serum of humans hyperimmunized with whooping-cough vaccine; antirabies gamma globulin comes from the serum of horses hyperimmunized against rabies. Concentrated solutions of gamma globulin contain considerably more antibodies than the initial serums. In the USSR gamma globulin is produced in the form of a 10 percent solution (introduced intramuscularly). Gamma globulin is used for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases mainly in children (measles, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, epidemic hepatitis, and other diseases). Gamma globulin also has a certain nonspecific (stimulating) effect and for this reason it is prescribed for children with chronic inflammations, decline in appetite, and so on.

gamma globulin

[′gam·ə ′gläb·yə·lən]
(immunology)
Any of the serum proteins with antibody activity.
References in periodicals archive ?
The leaflet states: In very rare cases gammopathy, in particular type IgM (Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia), may cause unreliable results.
9]/L) 300 Bone marrow blasts <1% Dermal biopsy Sweet syndrome Associated malignancy MGUS, CLL/SLL B indicates back; E, extremity; F, face; N, neck; AML, acute myelogenous leukemia; MGUS, monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance; CLL/SLL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma.
Increased serum bilirubin level without jaundice in patients with monoclonal gammopathy.
9,10) Free light chain assay is a more sensitive methodology, and it is also performed to monitor patients with multiple myeloma (MM) or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Monoclonal gammopathy was not observed in serum and urine protein electrophoresis, or immunofixation electrophoresis.
34) This finding is unexpected because monoclonal gammopathy is more likely to be present in B-cell CLL, but T-cell CLL is more common than B-cell CLL in dogs.
Polyclonal gammopathy is a common finding in HIV, and Tathiah and colleagues present a retrospective study of serum electrophoresis patterns in patients in KZN.
cincinnatiensis were described in a 73-year-old woman with nephrotic syndrome and idiopathic immunoglobulin gammopathy (6).
Decaux O, Laurat E, Perlat A, Cazalets C, Jego P, Grosbois B:Systemic manifestations of monoclonal gammopathy.
She had also been found on routine screening to have a monoclonal gammopathy that suggested multiple myeloma; however, a bone marrow biopsy and full body scan were negative for multiple myeloma.
But the growing clinical acceptance of a serum free light chain assay has all but eliminated urine tests in identifying such plasma cell disorders as multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and primary systemic amyloidosis (AL); and because the assay has proven to be more sensitive than IFE for detecting free or unbound immunoglobulin light chains when it is used in conjunction with SPEP, up to 99% of myelomas can be detected.