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rape,in botany, annual herb (Brassica napus) of the family Cruciferae (mustardmustard,
common name for the Cruciferae, a large family chiefly of herbs of north temperate regions. The easily distinguished flowers of the Cruciferae have four petals arranged diagonally ("cruciform") and alternating with the four sepals.
..... Click the link for more information. family), belonging to the same genus as the cabbage, the mustard plant, and the turnip (which it resembles in appearance). The origin of the rape is uncertain, and it is now known only as a cultivated plant. The seeds have been valued since ancient times for their oil content (30% to 45%). The oil, expressed or extracted by solvents, is used for lubricating, cooking, and illuminating purposes, for fuel, and for the manufacture of soap and synthetic rubber. Canola oil is also obtained from rape and is becoming widely used as a cooking oil because it has none of the deleterious effects of cholesterol and is completely digestible. A cake made of the seed residue is a valuable stock feed and a good nitrogenous fertilizer. Major producing areas include China, India, and Europe; the United States is one of the chief importers of the oil. Rape is also grown for forage, particularly for hogs; it is also sown as a cover crop (e.g., in orchards). Rape seed is used in birdseed mixtures. In North America, the plant is cultivated chiefly for forage—especially in the northern states and in Canada, because it can be grown as a winter-hardy biennial. Other similar species of Brassica are sometimes cultivated, especially in Asia for oil production. Rape is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
..... Click the link for more information. , class Magnoliopsida, order Capparales, family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).
rape,in law, the crime of sexual intercourse without the consent of the victim, often through force or threat of violence. The victim is deemed legally incapable of consenting if she or he is known to be mentally incompetent, intoxicated, drugged, or below the age of consentage of consent,
the age at which, according to the law, persons are bound by their words and acts. There are different ages at which one acquires legal capacity to consent to marriage, to choose a guardian, to conclude a contract, and the like.
..... Click the link for more information. at the time of the rape. Such cases are known as statutory rape, and evidence of consent is not deemed relevant in court. Although the term rape has traditionally applied to the male use of force in sexual relations with females, applicable laws have been revised in many jurisdictions to include possibilities where a male is the victim.
Issues surrounding rape and the law have been fiercely debated for years in the United States, and recent efforts—particularly by feminist groups—have had marked success in expanding victims rightsvictims rights,
rights of victims to have a role in the prosecution of the perpetrators of crimes against them. Nearly all U.S. states have enacted some victims rights legislation.
..... Click the link for more information. . One important reform, which has been in effect in most states in recent years, has been the removal of statutes requiring that rape victims physically resist the attack. Prior to this reform, victims of rape were required to display clear signs of injury in order to prove that they did not consent to sexual relations. Another reform has made marital rape a crime in many circumstances, with South Dakota becoming the first state to institute such law reforms in 1975. In the 1980s, "date rape," or acquaintance rape, became an important issue, particularly on college campuses. Victims of date rape contend that they were raped by an individual with whom they were acquainted. In many such cases, the establishment of guilt becomes difficult, particularly in cases where the victim displays no physical evidence of violence and there is only the testimony of the victim. In international law, rape was designated (2000) a war crimewar crimes,
in international law, violations of the laws of war (see war, laws of). Those accused have been tried by their own military and civilian courts, by those of their enemy, and by expressly established international tribunals.
..... Click the link for more information. by the Yugoslav tribunal established by the United Nations at The Hague. Rape can cause profound psychological trauma in its victims.
See D. E. Russell, The Politics of Rape (1984); S. Tomaselli and R. Porter, ed., Rape (1986); Z. Adler, Rape on Trial (1987); S. Estrich, Real Rape (1987).
rape,name applied to each of the six obsolete territorial divisions (Hastings, Pevensey, Lewes, Bramber, Arundel, and Chichester) into which Sussex, England, is divided.
a criminal act of sexual relations between a man and a woman, against the woman’s will and with the use of physical force, threats, or exploitation of the helpless state of the victim. According to Soviet criminal law, sexual relations regarded as rape are considered to have been committed if a helpless state is exploited, that is, when the victim, as a result of her physical or psychological state (physical defects, young age, unconsciousness, disturbed mental activity, or some other abnormal condition), could not understand the nature and significance of the act committed with her or could not offer resistance to the perpetrator, who in turn was aware that the victim was in such a helpless condition.
The law enumerates the following aggravating circumstances: the threat of murder, the threat to cause or the causing of serious bodily injury, or the committing of a rape by an individual who had previously committed such a crime. Especially aggravating circumstances include rapes attended by especially grave consequences; rapes committed by a group of individuals; rapes committed by particularly dangerous recidivists; and the rape of a minor.
A severe punishment has been established for rape—deprivation of freedom from three to seven years. Rapes committed under aggravating circumstances are punished by terms of five to ten years imprisonment. Rapes committed under especially aggravating circumstances can be punished by the deprivation of freedom for a term of eight to 15 years, followed sometimes by exile for a term of two to five years, or they can be punished by the death penalty.
(Brassica napus, including B. napus ssp. oleifera), an annual winter or spring plant of the family Cruciferae. Unknown in the wild state, rape has been cultivated since 4000 B.C. It appeared in Russia in the 19th century. Rape was produced by crossing B. campestris and B. oleracea.
The plant is glaucous throughout. Its stem is 50–150 cm tall. The basal leaves are arranged in a rosette and are covered with very scattered hairs; they are lyrate and pinnately cleft. The stem leaves vary in shape from lyrate (lower ones) to elongate-lanceolate (upper ones). The inflorescence is a raceme. The small flowers are yellow or, less commonly, white. The pods are long (5–10 cm) and narrow (3–4 mm). The fat content is 33–40 percent in the seeds of the spring variety and as much as 40–50 percent in the seeds of the winter variety. There are no pronounced morphological differences between the spring and winter varieties. Winter rape is only slightly winter-hardy and drought resistant.
Rape oil is used in the manufacture of margarine; it is also used by the soap, leather, textile, and metallurgical industries. The oil cake contains about 32 percent protein, 9 percent fat, and 30 percent nonnitrogenous extractive substances. After the removal of harmful glycosides, the oil cake makes a valuable concentrated feed for cattle. Winter rape is an excellent forage plant for all farm animals and yields up to 300 centners of green mass per hectare (ha). Rape that is planted in the autumn is a good early-spring nectar bearer.
The best soils for rape cultivation are deep, patterned clays and loams having a large reserve of nutrient matter and a water-permeable subsoil. The worldwide planting area of rape is about 10 million ha. The plant is raised mainly in India, China, and Canada. In the USSR, winter rape is grown mainly in the forest-steppe zone of the Ukrainian SSR, and spring rape in the northern part of the forest-steppe zone of the Ukrainian SSR. Winter rape that is to be used for animal feed may be grown in almost all the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the USSR. The seed yield is 10–30 centners per ha for winter rape and 8–15 centners per ha for spring rape.
V. P. SHPOTA
What does it mean when you dream about rape?
A dream about rape may symbolize a violent assault on the dreamer’s physical environment or a devastating blow to the person’s financial security.