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examination by means of an optical instrument, or endoscope, of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus— esophagoscopy) and body cavities (for example, the abdominal cavity—laparoscopy). Endoscopes are introduced through natural openings (as in bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, or cystoscopy) or through surgical incisions (as in mediastinoscopy). Endoscopy is performed under local or general anesthesia.

The first attempts to examine the urinary bladder and other hollow organs were made as early as the 19th century, but the inadequacy of the endoscopes limited development of the procedures. The possibilities of endoscopy have greatly increased since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of glass-fiber light guides and of instruments of fiber optics based on such light guides. Examination of almost all organs has become possible, and the illumination of the examined object has increased. Conditions for photographing and filming (endophotography and endocinematography) have improved, and it is now possible to make monochromatic and color videotape recordings (modifications of standard cameras and motion-picture cameras are used).

Documentation of the results of endoscopic examination have made possible objective study of the dynamics of pathological processes occurring in any organ. Modern endoscopy plays a special role in diagnosing the early stages of many diseases. The procedure is often combined with endoscopic biopsy, therapeutic measures, and catheterization. Endoscopic offices and departments have been established in many large medical institutions, and some physicians now specialize in endoscopy.


Lukomskii, G. I., and Iu. E. Berezov. Endoskopicheskaia tekhnika v khirurgii. Moscow, 1967.
Loginov, A. S. Laparoskopiia v klinike vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow, 1969.
Sokolov, L. K. Atlas endoskopii zheludka i dvenadtsatiperstnoi kishki. Moscow, 1975.


References in periodicals archive ?
The quality indicators are published online in GIE: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the official peer-reviewed scientific journal of ASGE, and The American Journal of Gastroenterology, the official peer-reviewed scientific journal of ACG.
Identifies major segments including equipment directly used for gastrointestinal endoscopy for humans and those used for animals, as well as peripheral equipment directed toward gastrointestinal endoscopy equipment and procedures
This document was reviewed and approved by the Governing Boards of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and the AGA Institute.
The case is additional to a previously confirmed transmission of Hepatitis C for a patient during a May 29, 2013 gastrointestinal endoscopy at BGH.
Two weeks before the patient had an episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with hemostasis and biopsy of a 2cm duodenal polyp, which revealed Brunner's gland hyperplasia.
This represents a very logical and new direction for treatment of such conditions," said Dr Stanford professor of medicine Pankaj Pasricha, lead author of the study in the December 2009 issue of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
With numerous color clinical photographs and other illustrations, they describe the settings and staff, including disinfection and the role of the pediatric endoscopy nurse, equipment, including image resolution and troubleshooting, patient preparation, including pediatric-monitored sedation and anesthesia, postsedation care and specific sedation techniques, diagnostic upper endoscopy techniques including push endoscopy and jejunoscopy, therapeutic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, pediatric colonoscopy, polypectomy, chromoendoscopy, and wireless capsule endoscopy for children, including information on pacemaker safety and bowel preparations.
In general this group of patients are sicker than those undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and require full pre-operative assessment in accordance with guidelines published by the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) (11).
The new system is exhibited at the 71st Congress of Japan Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Society held in Tokyo.
We can't access the small intestine in the same way that we can look at the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract," says David L Carr-Locke, president of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and director of endoscopy at Brigham & Women's Hospital.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed on August 15, 1997, with examination to the descending duodenum.

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