gelatin

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gelatin

or

animal jelly,

foodstuff obtained from connective tissue (found in hoofs, bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage) of vertebrate animals by the action of boiling water or dilute acid. It is largely composed of denatured collagencollagen
, any of a group of proteins found in skin, ligaments, tendons, bone and cartilage, and other connective tissue. Cells called fibroblasts form the various fibers in connective tissue in the body.
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, a protein particularly rich in the amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. The process of manufacture is a complex one that involves removing foreign substances, boiling the material (usually in distilled water in aluminum vessels to prevent contamination), and purifying it of all chemicals used in freeing the gelatin from the connective tissues. The final product in its purest form is brittle, transparent, colorless, tasteless, and odorless and has the distinguishing property of dissolving in hot water and congealing when cold. In contact with cold water it takes up from 5 to 10 times its own weight and swells to an elastic, transparent mass. Gelatin, being readily digested and absorbed, is a good food for children and invalids. It is important in fine cookery as a vehicle for other materials, in the form of jellied soups, molded meats and salads, and frozen desserts. Preparations of it are used in the home manufacture of jam, jellies, and preserves to ensure jellification of fruit juices. It is used in the drying and preserving of fruits and meats, in the glazing of coffee, and in the preparation of powdered milk and other powdered foods. Bakeries use it in making meringues, eclairs, and other delicacies. In confectionery making it is used as the basis of taffy, nougat, marshmallows, and fondant. Ice cream manufacture employs it to maintain a permanent emulsion of other ingredients and thus to give body to the finished product. In scientific processes gelatin is widely employed, being used in electrotyping, photography, waterproofing, and dyeing, and in coating microscopic slides. It is used as a culture medium for bacteriological research and also to make coatings for pills and capsules, for court plaster, and for some surgical dressings. It affords a base for ointments and pastes, such as toothpaste; it is an emulsifying agent useful in making liquid combinations and various sprays. In its less pure forms gelatin is known as glue and size. Vegetable gelatin, or agaragar
, product obtained from several species of red algae, or seaweed, chiefly from the Ceylon, or Jaffna, moss (Gracilaria lichenoides) and species of Gelidium, harvested in eastern Asia and California.
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, is derived from East Indian seaweeds.

Gelatin

 

(gelatine), a mixture of protein substances of animal origin.

Gelatin is prepared from bones, tendons, and cartilage by prolonged boiling in water. In this process collagen, a component of connective tissue, becomes gluten. The resulting solution is evaporated, clarified, and chilled until it is converted to a gel, which is cut in pieces and dried. Gelatin is produced in sheet or powdered form. Finished dry gelatin is tasteless, odorless, transparent, and almost colorless or slightly yellow. It swells greatly in cold water and dilute acids, but does not dissolve. Upon heating, the swollen gelatin dissolves, forming a sticky solution that hardens to a gel. It is used in medicine and biology (as styptic or nutrient media), in pharmacy (the manufacture of capsules, suppositories, and so forth), in the food industry (production of gelatin, jelly, marmalade, and other confectionery products), in photography and cinematography (preparation of emulsions in the light-sensitive layer of cinema film, photographic paper, and X-ray film), and in industry (the sizing of high-grade paper; the manufacture of paper money, paints, artificial pearls, and other goods).

gelatin

[′jel·ət·ən]
(materials)
(organic chemistry)
A protein derived from the skin, white connective tissue, and bones of animals; used as a food and in photography, the plastics industry, metallurgy, and pharmaceuticals.

gelatine

, gelatin
1. a colourless or yellowish water-soluble protein prepared by boiling animal hides and bones: used in foods, glue, photographic emulsions, etc.
2. any of various substances that resemble gelatine
3. a translucent substance used for colour effects in theatrical lighting
References in periodicals archive ?
The gelatin market has been segmented on the basis of applications, raw materials and geography in order to provide a holistic picture of the market.
The scientists extracted the gelatins from both warm-water fish--tilapia and tuna--and cold-water fish--cod, megrim and hake.
MARKET OVERVIEW II-1 Gelatin: An Omnipresent, Natural and Highly Pure Protein II-1 Major Applications and Functions of Gelatin by Category Type II-2 Table 1: Raw Materials Used in Gelatin Production (2014E): Percentage Share Breakdown for Bones, Bovine Hides, Pig Skin, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-5 Production Scenario by Geographic Region II-6 Table 2: Gelatin Production Worldwide (2014E): Percentage Breakdown by Geographic Region (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-6 Recession in Retrospect and the Road Ahead II-6 Table 3: Economic Growth (%) Worldwide by Region (2011-2014E) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-7 Europe: The Largest Market II-8 Developing Countries to Drive Future Growth II-8
They are studying the formation and structure of different mammalian and fish gelatin gels; examining the functional properties of different mammalian and fish gelatins; evaluating the structure-function relationship of gelatins; making and evaluating blends of the new gelatins and commercial gelatins; and modeling functional properties.
There are currently two types of capsules: two-piece hard gelatin capsules (used for powders) and one-piece soft gelatin capsules (used for liquids).
5 kDa recombinant gelatin, which has completed human safety testing demonstrating its suitability for use in drug delivery.
Market Analysis III-26 Outlook III-26 European Gelatin Production by Raw Material Source III-26 Table 43: European Market for Gelatin (2012): Breakdown of Production by Raw Material - Pig Skin, Bovine Hides, Bones, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III-26 EU Regulations on Edible Gelatin and Hydrolyzed Collagen III-27 European Regulations for Pharmaceutical-grade Gelatin III-27 European Pharmacopeia (EP) III-27 Requirements for Bovine Gelatins III-27 REACH Implications for Gelatin/Collagen III-27 EU Regulation for the Production of Organic Gelatin III-28 Regulatory and Pricing Issues to Curtail Gelatin Market Prospects III-28 B.
5 kD gelatin fragment as a safe and fully characterized alternative to animal- and plasma-derived proteins currently used as stabilizing components in formulations of vaccines and biological therapeutics.
RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY II-54 Darling to Acquire Vion's Ingredients Unit II-54 Mitsubishi Chemical to Take Over Qualicaps II-54 Shanghai International Trading and Nitta Gelatin Establish Nitta Gelatin Vietnam JV II-54 Oceans Omega Partners with Lakeview Farms for Production of Omega-3 Fortified Gelatins II-54 Qualicaps Establishes Fierce Pharma Manufacturing Facility II-55 Capsugel Upgrades and Expands Manufacturing Facilities in Europe and the US II-55 VION Separates Food and Ingredients Businesses II-55 Patheon Takes Over Banner Pharmacaps II-56
New additions to the Royal gelatin portfolio include Manzana (Apple), Uva (Grape), Mango, Tutti Frutti, Jamaica (Hibiscus), Pina (Pineapple), Limon (Lemon) and Tamarindo (Tamarind) flavors.
Additionally, leveraging its knowledge of extracellular matrix biology, FibroGen has developed the only known commercially viable methods for the production of recombinant human collagens and gelatins, including the production of specifically designed synthetic gelatins based on particular portions of collagen molecules, for pharmaceutical, medical device, and many other markets, offering replacements for the animal carcass-derived materials currently available.
Table 3: Gelatin Production Capacity of Leading Players(2012) II-4Production Scenario by Geographic Region II-4Table 4: Global Gelatin Production (in '000 Tonnes) byGeographic Region: 2012 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-4Rising Gelatin Prices: A Major Concern II-5Rousselot Announces Increase in Prices II-5Rising Prices Lead Confectioners to Opt for Cost-effectiveStarch Alternatives II-6New Yogurt Stabilizers to Tackle Gelatin Price Rise II-6Gelatin Regulations in a Nutshell II-7Gelatin Pharmacopoeia - At a Glance II-7Edible Gelatin Regulations II-8