gender

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gender

In many other languages, especially the Romance languages (such as French, Spanish, and Italian), a large number of nouns are coded as being either feminine or masculine.
This used to be the case in Old English as well, but in modern English only certain nouns that describe a person who performs an action are inflected for gender. This is usually achieved by changing the end of the word to a feminine suffix, such as “-ess,” “-ine,” and “-trix.” Words are less commonly changed to specifically reflect masculine gender, but the few that do use the suffixes “-er” or “-or.”
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gender

[Lat. genus=kind], in grammar, subclassification of nouns or nounlike words in which the members of the subclass have characteristic features of agreement with other words. The term gender is not usually considered to include the classification of numbernumber,
entity describing the magnitude or position of a mathematical object or extensions of these concepts. The Natural Numbers

Cardinal numbers describe the size of a collection of objects; two such collections have the same (cardinal) number of objects if their
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. In French, for example, there are two genders, feminine and masculine, marked by the form of the articles la and le [both: the]. Most French nouns referring to males are masculine (le garcon [the boy]), and most referring to females are feminine (la fille [the girl]), thus conforming to natural gender. Other words are placed in either gender, e.g., le jardin [the garden] and la table [the table], being instances of grammatical gender. In German, Russian, and Latin there are three genders, called masculine, feminine, and neuter. Scandinavian and Dutch languages have in addition to these three a "common" gender, which combines, and often distinguishes between, masculine and feminine. A genderlike distinction between animate and inanimate is widespread, e.g., in Algonquian languages of North America and the Andamanese of the Bay of Bengal. Some Bantu languages have 20 genderlike noun classes. English nouns may be divided into gender classes according to the personal pronouns they take. Nouns referring to males take he and nouns referring to females take she. Most English nouns referring to objects that cannot be classified by sex take the pronoun it, although exceptions exist; ships, for example, are sometimes referred to as she. The grammatical device of concord, or agreement, is bound up with gender distinctions. By it one word bears a formal signal to show its relationship to the word it accompanies or modifies; thus, in la viande, the form of la shows that it is related to a word of the feminine gender class, and it may be said to agree with, or be in concord with, viande. While in most Indo-European languages gender involves nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, in Semitic langauges and some Slavic languages even verbal forms must agree with the gender of their subjects. Although gender is present in many languages, it is far from universal. In English a few words retain gender inflection (e.g., actress, executrix), but since the 12th to 15th cent. English has dropped most of the gender distinctions characteristic of its ancestor languages.

gender

  1. (common usage) the distinction between males and females according to anatomical sex.
  2. (sociological usage) a social division frequently based on, but not necessarily coincidental with, anatomical sex. Thus, sociological usage of the term gender can be at odds with everyday usage.
Sociologists and social psychologists argue that while sex refers to the biological characteristics by which human beings are categorized as ‘male’, ‘female’, or in rare instances ‘hermaphrodite’ (in which the biological characteristics of both sexes are actually or apparently combined), gender refers to the social and social-psychological attributes by which human beings are categorized as ‘masculine’, ‘feminine’ or ‘androgynous’ (in which the social-psychological characteristics of both genders are intentionally or unintentionally combined). Many sociologists stress that within sociological discourse gender should be used when referring to the socially-created division of society into those who are masculine and those who are feminine. Whereas ‘male’ and ‘female’ are terms reserved for biological differences between men and women and boys and girls, ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ are reserved for culturally-imposed behavioural and temperamental traits deemed socially appropriate to the sexes. These traits are learnt via a complex and continuing process of SOCIALIZATION.

Anthropologists (e.g. Margaret MEAD) and psychologists, as well as sociologists, have stressed that gender is not biologically determined but socially and culturally defined. Gender is seen as culturally and historically relative, i.e. the meaning, interpretation and expression of gender varies both within and between cultures, and is subject to historical modification. Social factors such as class, age, race and ethnicity also shape the specific meaning, expression and experience of gender, underlining the fact that gender cannot be equated in any simplistic way with sex or SEXUALITY. see FEMINIST THEORY.

gender

[′jen·dər]
(electricity)
The classification of a connector as female or male.
References in periodicals archive ?
Each author considers the gendering of a form of early modern British "business": Comensoli examines domestic and dramatic "economies"; Rosenthal studies the business of playwriting, including the traffic of authorship in theaters and satires, and on Grub Street.
the image of the female penetrating the male and impregnating him clearly complicates the traditional gendering of sexual imagery.