In the proposed

general topology, the number of output voltage levels (N step), number of switches (N switch), number of dc voltage sources(N source), and the maximum magnitude of the generated voltage(Vo, max) are calculated as follows, respectively

This overview of recent concepts and findings in large algebraic substructures is for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with background in calculus of real variables, Lebesgue integration, set theory, linear algebra,

general topology, Hilbert/Banach spaces, complex variables, and holomorphic functions.

The concept of fuzzy set was applied in [2] to generalize the basic concepts of

general topology.

Engelking,

General Topology, Revised and completed edition, Heldermann Verlag Berlin, 1989.

8th Summer Conference on

General Topology and Applications, Ann.

The topics are informal topology, graphs, surfaces, graphs and surfaces, knots and links, the differential geometry of surfaces, Riemann geometries, hyperbolic geometry, the fundamental group,

general topology, and polytopes.

They write for students who are familiar with

general topology and linear algebra, but not topological vector spaces.

Engelking,

General topology, PWN-Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsaw, 1977.

We know in

general topology that if X is finite, then (X, T) is finite dimensional where T is any

general topology on X.

Digital images can be related to topological space structures, and then

general topology principles can be straightforwardly implemented.

The concept of finitistic space in

general topology was introduced in 1960 by R.

He also assumes that students are well acquainted with elementary real analysis and have some knowledge of

general topology, but not integration, measure theory, or the theory of Fourier series.