geniculate ganglion


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geniculate ganglion

[jə′nik·yə·lət ′gaŋ·glē·ən]
(neuroscience)
A mass of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells located along the facial nerve.
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The horizontal segment lies inferior to the geniculate ganglion and posteromedial to the eustachian tube and the greater superficial petrosal nerve.
In the vast majority of facial nerves (88%), the geniculate ganglion is the major component of facial nerve sensory input; in 4% of facial nerves, the number of cells in the geniculate and meatal ganglia are approximately equal, and in 8%, the meatal ganglion is larger than the geniculate ganglion.
Brain MRI has often demonstrated segmental enhancement of the VIIth and VIIIth cranial nerves, geniculate ganglion, and membranous labyrinth, (3) but petrosal inflammation has only been reported once in Ramsay Hunt syndrome.
T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast can demonstrate enhancement of the cochleovestibular complex, the facial nerve, and the geniculate ganglion (figure).
A facial nerve schwannoma was seen extending from the geniculate ganglion to the parotid gland and terminating just proximal to the pesanserinus; the schwannoma was completely removed.
The mastoidectomy is performed first, and it involves a standard postauricular facial nerve decompression that extends from the stylomastoid foramen to the beginning of the geniculate ganglion.
1-3) Facial nerve hemangiomas arise from vascular plexuses distributed along the facial nerve paths in the geniculate ganglion region, in the mastoid segment of the facial nerve near the origin of the chorda tympani, and in the internal auditory canal around Scarpa's ganglion.
The sensory root (nervus intermedius) consists of central processes of neurons located in the geniculate ganglion and axons of parasympathetic neurons from the superior salivatory nucleus.
It entails facial nerve procedures medial to the geniculate ganglion.
Although Bell palsy has been defined as idiopathic, there is now good evidence to implicate the activation of herpes simplex virus near the geniculate ganglion as the cause of this disorder.
Facial nerve schwannomas have a predilection for the area of the geniculate ganglion, although they can occur at any point along the nerve between its origin in the pons and its exit in the stylomastoid foramen and parotid segment.
The middle fossa approach provides neurotologic surgical access to lesions of the geniculate ganglion and the labyrinthine portion of the facial nerve as well as to the internal acoustic canal, and therefore helps preserve cochlear function.