Furthermore, with exception of "inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication" and "inhibition of senescence through activation of telomerase," a number of the mechanisms/ endpoints listed are not specific to NGTxC: oxidative stress, increased mitogenesis, interference with tubulin polymerization and so on, are also mechanisms for genotoxic carcinogens
, and where negative results are recorded in the mutagenicity/genotoxicity assays, these are acceptable for mutagenesis/genotoxicity regulatory purposes.
The present study aimed to examine mixtures of the foodborne genotoxic carcinogens
BaP and PhIP at doses that are relevant to human exposure.
Often being found in baked, fried or grilled foods, acrylamide is a suspected carcinogen and the UK Committee on Carcinogenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment states that exposure to genotoxic carcinogens
should be as low as reasonably possible.
From there, specific types of dose--response relationship, such as the sometimes controversial hormesis mechanism and always controversial biological thresholds for genotoxic carcinogens
, are discussed, thereby supplementing the understanding of these latter critical concepts.
The associated genotoxic carcinogens
for several of these cancers, and also heart disease causation, are heterocyclic amines produced during the broiling and frying of creatinine containing foods such as meats.
However, in the present study, which was shorter term and used a lower dose, we found no change in oxidative DNA-damage-related gene expression, nor did we find a gene expression profile characteristic of a range of genotoxic carcinogens
, such as described by Ellinger-Ziegelbauer et al.
At least," he says, "there is a contrast with tobacco smoke, where genotoxic carcinogens
are clearly present and involved along with other types of effects, and carcinogen-DNA adducts have been observed in the breast tissue of exposed women.