# geographic coordinates

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## Geographic Coordinates

measurements that define the position of a point on the earth’s surface. Latitude (ø) is measured by the angle between a plumb line passing through a given point and the plane of the equator, and longitude (x) is measured by the dihedral angle between the plane of the meridian of a given point and the plane of the prime meridian. Latitude and longitude are determined from observations of heavenly bodies with the aid of angle gauges (for example, the universal theodolite and the sextant), which are placed with the help of a leveling weight, and from the comparison of local time (determined by astronomical observations) with universal time. Geographic coordinates determined in this way are called astronomical coordinates of a point on the earth’s surface.

Latitude is counted from 0° to 90° on both sides of the equator. In the northern hemisphere the latitude is considered positive, in the southern hemisphere, negative. Longitude is counted from the prime meridian from 0° to 360° either to the west (west longitude) or the east (east longitude—by international accord, positive). A system counting from 0° to 180° to the east and west of the prime meridian is also used.

By international agreement the base meridian (so-called prime or zero) is the meridian passing through the old Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich (London) before its transfer to Hurstmonceux Castle. Previously, meridians through other points, including the Island of Hierro (the Canary Islands) and the Paris and Berlin observatories, were used for this purpose at various times. In Russia during the 19th century longitude was calculated from the meridian of the Pulkovo Observatory.

## geographic coordinates

The quantities of latitude and longitude that define the position of a point on the surface of the earth with respect to the reference spheroid. The same as coordinates.
References in periodicals archive ?
We corrected the reported geographic coordinates and elevations when 1) the consulted sources reported a locality whose location raised overall doubts, or 2) the provided geographic coordinates located them in an obviously unlikely area (too far from reference point, on groundwater bodies, ravines, etc.
As collected in the same month, by the same collector in the same locality, geographic coordinates of this specimen were assumed to be the same that Velazco et al.
36[degrees]E, 2013, a projected video titled after Kolkata's geographic coordinates.
Lavrov said Russia had been shown some evidence by the West but expressed scepticism over its validity, saying "there was nothing concrete, without geographic coordinates or names.
The resultant map allows use of a Euclidean coordinate system with Eastings and Northings instead of geographic coordinates with longitude and latitude.
Geocoding is the process of determining the geographic coordinates corresponding to a given postal address or a geographical name.
RTA customers using the Madinati system will be able to transmit their reports on the system and attach photographic images or video clip, and the geographic coordinates of the site without having to contact the Call Centre (8009090), along with the site of the fault to be reported.
When used with a GPS-enabled device, the pH meter app will record measurements with both time-stamp and geographic coordinates.
One included a sketch of a city, with geographic coordinates and distances between certain locations in the margin.
The geographic coordinates that form this line were generated by Clarisoft in conjunction with GIS, a base system used to store, analyze and manipulate geographic locations.
He said the Lebanese government had been in correspondence with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon on the extent of Lebanon's waters and boundaries, "namely the geographic coordinates respectively pertaining to the southernmost and southwest border of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Lebanon.
The company has remained silent after researchers Alasdair Allan and Pete Warden revealed this Wednesday that the iPhone was storing logs of users' geographic coordinates in a hidden file.

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