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in a seed, process by which the plant embryo within the seedseed,
fertilized and ripened ovule, consisting of the plant embryo, varying amounts of stored food material, and a protective outer seed coat. Seeds are frequently confused with the fruit enclosing them in flowering plants, especially in grains and nuts.
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 resumes growth after a period of dormancy and the seedling emerges. The length of dormancy varies; the seed of some plants (e.g., most grasses and many tropical plants) can sprout almost immediately, but many seeds require a resting stage before they are able to germinate. The viability of seeds (their capacity to sprout) ranges from a few weeks (orchids) to up to 1,200 years (sacred lotus) and 2,000 years (date palm). The percentage of viable seed decreases with age. Dormancy serves to enable the seed to survive poor growing conditions; a certain amount of embryonic development may also take place. Dormancy can be prolonged by extremely tough seed coats that exclude the water necessary for germination. Internally, growth is regulated by hormones called auxins. When the temperature is suitable and there is an adequate supply of moisture, oxygen, and light—although some seeds require darkness and others are unaffected by either—the seed absorbs water and swells, rupturing the seed coat. The growing tip (radicle) of the rudimentary root (hypocotyl) emerges first and then the growing tip (plumule) of the rudimentary shoot (epicotyl). Food stored in the endosperm or in the cotyledons provides energy for the early stages of this process, until the seedling is able to manufacture its own food via photosynthesisphotosynthesis
, process in which green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria utilize the energy of sunlight to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll. Some of the plants that lack chlorophyll, e.g.
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the ability of a seed to yield normal sprouts after a set period of time in defined sprouting conditions. In the USSR seed germination is defined by state seed inspection in controlled seed analysis following a method prescribed by the All-Union State Standard (GOST 12038-66). The number of normally sprouted seeds is expressed as a percentage of the total number of seeds taken for analysis. In defining the usefulness of seeds for planting, germination is one of the most important qualities. This is of great productive importance. Seeds with high germination rapidly and conceitedly yield shoots, guaranteeing large harvests under proper conditions. High seed standards are required for norms of germination, so that first-class seeds of the basic grain crops except for hard wheat must have a germination not lower than 95 percent, and hard wheat must have one not lower than 90 percent. Seeds that do not meet the standard may not be used for planting. Germination depends to a great extent on the techniques of cultivation, method of harvesting, and storing conditions.



The beginning or the process of development of a spore or seed.
References in periodicals archive ?
Limited period of graviresponsiveness in germinating spores of Ceratopteris richardii.
This meant that the roots of the earliest germinating seeds had quickly reached the bottom of the small cube and quit growing.
Germinating self-gathered seed from the previous year will always be a hit or miss affair even when the plant is in charge of the process itself
They should be soil-less and consist of equal parts of fine textured bulking material such as coir and fine sand, which ensures effective drainage and aeration for germinating seeds.
The easiest way to tell if the soil temperature is rising and warm enough for vegetable and flower seeds to germinate outdoors is to look for tiny weed seedlings germinating.
That element prevents the plants' seeds from germinating under any circumstances.
and his intense dislike of Roosevelt, the escalating post-Cold War environment of the 1950s, the 1960s Berlin crisis, the Cuban missile crisis, the germinating civil rights movement and the early development of the tragedy known as the Vietnam War.
Even though this cannot be tested in a live situation due to the danger of working with anthrax, BBJ is confident of its viability because the established level of effectiveness of the active ingredient in BBJ MicroBiocide on Bacillus subtilis suggests it may prove effective in preventing Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) from germinating.
It must travel to hell three times before the green shows above ground - at least that was the old explanation given to account for the three weeks of germinating time.
But as hard as I try I cannot propagate the seed although this year for the very first time the parent plant has succeeded where I failed - several dozen plantlets germinating in the accumulated humus at the foot of the hedge.
Eradicating the problem requires intense vigilance, she notes, since seeds can survive in soil for up to 18 years before germinating.
There were no germinations until the third day of incubation, with the highest number of seeds germinating on the fourth day of incubation, followed by a decline to zero on day seven.