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ghetto

(gĕt`ō), originally, a section of a city in which Jews lived; it has come to mean a section of a city where members of any racial group are segregated. In the early Middle Ages the segregation of Jews in separate streets or localities was voluntary. The first compulsory ghettos were in Spain and Portugal at the end of the 14th cent. The ghetto was typically walled, with gates that were closed at a certain hour each night, and all Jews had to be inside the gate at that hour or suffer penalties. The reason generally given for compulsory ghettos was that the faith of Christians would be weakened by the presence of Jews; the idea of Jewish segregation dates from the Lateran Councils of 1179 and 1215. Within the ghetto the inhabitants usually had autonomy, with their own courts of law, their own culture, and their own charitable, recreational, educational, and religious institutions. Economic activities, however, were restricted, and beyond the ghetto walls Jews were required to wear badges of identification. One of the most infamous ghettos was that of Frankfurt, to which Jews were compelled to move by a city ordinance of 1460. Crowded into a narrow section, the ghetto underwent several disastrous fires. The ghetto in Venice was established in 1516 after long negotiations between the city and the Jews. In 1870 the last ghetto in Western Europe, in Rome, was abolished. In Russia the Jewish PalePale.
1 In Irish and English history, that district of indefinite and varying limits around Dublin, in which English law prevailed. The term was first used in the 14th cent. to designate what had previously been called English land.
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 continued to exist until 1917. After the 18th cent. ghettos were also to be found in some Muslim countries. During World War II the Nazis set up ghettos in many towns in E Europe from which Jews were transported to concentration campsconcentration camp,
a detention site outside the normal prison system created for military or political purposes to confine, terrorize, and, in some cases, kill civilians.
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 for liquidation; the WarsawWarsaw
, Pol. Warszawa, city (1993 est. pop. 1,655,700), capital of Poland and of Mazowieckie prov., central Poland, on both banks of the Vistula River. It is a political, cultural, and industrial center, a major transportation hub, and one of Europe's great historic
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 (Poland) ghetto was a prime example. In the United States, African Americans, Chicanos, and immigrant groups have been forced to live in ghettos through economic and social forces rather than being required to do so by law. See also anti-Semitismanti-Semitism
, form of prejudice against Jews, ranging from antipathy to violent hatred. Before the 19th cent., anti-Semitism was largely religious and was expressed in the later Middle Ages by sporadic persecutions and expulsions—notably the expulsion from Spain under
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.

ghetto

a segregated area of a city characterized by common ethnic and cultural charac teristics. The term originated in the Middle Ages in Europe as the name for areas of cities in which Jews were constrained to live. The term was adopted more generally in sociology by the CHICAGO SCHOOL, and particularly by Wirth (The Ghetto, 1928). Ghetto has now taken on a meaning which implies not only homogeneity of ethnic and cultural population, but also the concentration of socially-disadvantaged and minority groups in the most impoverished inner city areas. The term is often used in emotive, racist and imprecise ways.

Ghetto

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Beginning with the Egyptian bondage and continuing through the Assyrian deportation, the Babylonian captivity, and the great Diaspora, Jewish people have found themselves living among Gentiles of many nationalities (see Judaism, Development of). Originating from the Latin word for "nations," "Gentile" simply means any nonJewish person.

Frequently, especially in Europe beginning in the Middle Ages, Gentiles established Jewish-only quarters of the city called ghettos. This was not a new concept. Way back in the time of the Exodus, Jewish people were confined to the "land of Goshen" while building bricks for the Egyptians. Although the term is now used in a more generic sense, it often was the custom to wall in the Jewish ghetto at night and to completely lock it off during Christian Holy Days to prevent mixing between Christians and Jews.

Even under these harsh and demeaning circumstances, Jewish leaders attempted to run their communities according to Talmudic law, providing for the especially poor and fostering Jewish study and scholarship.

Among the most notorious ghettos were those established by the Nazis during World War II. One such ghetto was established in 1940, when the Nazis ordered all the Jews in Warsaw, Poland, to gather in a certain part of the city, then erected a tenfoot wall to seal off the area. An article published by the Public Broadcasting System describes the conditions: More than 400,000 Jews lived there, near starvation; 10 percent of the population died from disease by the end of the first year. Deportations of "non-productive" inhabitants began in 1942, and 300,000 Jews were deported that year, most of them to Treblinka death camp. In April of 1943, when the Nazis moved to liquidate the ghetto, the remaining inhabitants began their desperate, and hopeless, resistance. Shortly before his death in battle, resistance leader Mordecai Anielewicz wrote, "My life's dream has been realized. I have lived to see Jewish defense in the ghetto rally its greatness and glory."

Ghetto

 

a part of the city set aside as a residential area for Jews. The designation “ghetto” appeared in the 16th century (apparently from Italian ghetta—the cannon workshop around which the Jewish quarter of Venice, set up in 1516, was situated). However, ghettos existed in many medieval European cities prior to that date (the best-known ghettos were in Frankfurt am Main, Prague, Venice, and Rome).

The settling of Jews in ghettos originally was in keeping with the corporate order characteristic of the Middle Ages, when every professional or religious group lived in isolation, but in the 14th and 15th centuries it became compulsory. Residents of the ghetto were forbidden to leave it at night (the ghetto gates were locked for the night). Life within the ghetto was regulated by the wealthy upper-class members of the Jewish community and by the rabbinate. A legacy of the Middle Ages, the ghettos disappeared in the first half of the 19th century (the Roman ghetto was permanently abolished only in 1870). There were no ghettos in tsarist Russia. Only in a few cities annexed to its territory when Poland was partitioned (late 18th century) was there a restriction on the right of Jews to live outside streets assigned to them; this restriction was ended in 1862.

During World War II (1939-45), in a number of Eastern European cities under fascist German occupation, the Nazis created ghettos that were essentially huge concentration camps in which the Jewish population was destroyed. The armed uprisings of the prisoners of the Warsaw ghetto in 1943 and the Białystok ghetto in August 1943 were part of the national liberation struggle of Poland’s antifascist forces.

The term “ghetto” is sometimes used to designate a section of the city inhabited by national minorities that are subject to discrimination (for example, Harlem, “Negro ghetto” in New York).

S. IA. BOROVOI

References in periodicals archive ?
The ISM further assumes that a more viable transmission of tradition across generations will likely occur with actualization than with ghettoization (cf.
In other words, they risk ghettoization of their beloved sport (Messner, 2002).
Freirich, in a statement in the USA on Sunday, said erection of this concrete wall in Baia Mare town was an attempt at ghettoization, humiliation, degrading and segregation of Roma.
Muslims face discrimination in the job and housing markets, and Muslim ghettoization is increasing in northeastern and western India.
I was also disenchanted with both operatic institutions and the ghettoization of early music.
They may be citizens of the state, but what's the use of citizenship when ghettoization, drug-abuse and self-destruction define their everyday lives.
Instead of looking for a pan-European solution, the summit in Paris will contribute to the complete ghettoization of the Bulgarian Roma, media fears.
Ryan's analysis of selected Canadian newspapers showed "comfort" with increasing diversity, but also the critics' concerns: ghettoization, dual loyalties, cultural relativism, disdain for the cultural majority and failure to promote Canadian identity.
Blauner differentiated between the ghettoization of white ethnics as voluntary while the ghettoization of blacks and other "colonized minorities" was involuntary.
In both scholarly and activist accounts of lesbian culture, commodification, and the closely related phenomenon of ghettoization, have been seen as primarily masculine phenomena, or, where they can be seen to have affected lesbian subcultures, as masculine impositions upon women.
Yet in the most critical period for Romanian Jews, the period between the two world wars, when the ghettoization and the tragedy of the corresponding Nazi persecutions took place, the Jewish ghetto produced a sudden and unexpected resurrection of freedom.
Ghettoization of broad areas of thought and practice and the emergence of power mongers forged in the image of the modernist 'strong critic' are conceivable and perhaps even inevitable consequences of such a path.