Measurements were made on 31 morphological characters, including standard length, which generally followed those described by Nakabo (2002a) except for the following: body depth 1 and 2 as defined by Kai and Nakabo (2002); upper peduncle length, lower peduncle length, spinous dorsal-fin base length, soft dorsal-fin base length, prepelvic length, and gill raker
length as defined by Chen (1971); body width was taken as the distance between the uppermost bases of the right and left pectoral fins; pelvic-to-anal-fin length was taken as the distance from the anteriormost base of the pelvic fin to the origin of the anal fin.
fin ray, scale, teeth, gill raker
, and lateral line pore counts).
Care was taken to avoid catheter contact with the gill raker
The methods of counting and measuring are as follows: dorsal and anal rays--the last ray of the anal and second dorsal fins is divided at the base and counted as a single ray; gill raker
count--number of gill rakers
on the first branchial arch.
Based on correlations of vertebral and gill raker
dimensions with the total length for Recent C.
3% SL); the slightly upturned mouth; high total gill raker
count (23-34, mean 28.
Among morphometric characters of specimens with all characters, snout length, suborbital depth, gill raker
length, body depth at analfin origin, body depth at anal-fin insertion, dorsal-fin spine 1 length, dorsal-fin spine 4 length, pectoral-fin ray length, pelvic-fin ray length, pelvic-fin spine length, anal-fin spine 1 length, anal-fin spine 2 length, anal-fin spine 3 length, preanal length, and soft-dorsal-fin base length differed significantly between S.
All measurements and gill raker
counts were taken on the left side of fish.
counts are from the first gill arch (usually on the right side), and the raker at the angle is included in the lower-limb count; rudimentary gill rakers
, with the diameter of their bases greater than their height, are defined as tubercles or short rakers.
The upper limb gill raker
count is given first; the raker at the angle is included in the lower limb count.
counts were made on the first gill arch and include rudiments.
structure does not provide significant insight into the possible feeding modes of these various planktivorous fish.