that control blood flow in response to neuron activity, help guide neuron development
Unfortunately for brain regeneration, radial glial cells
are only present in the developing brain and they completely disappear as the brain matures, with the result that there are no radial glial cells
found in the adult brain.
In a state of chronic inflammation, glial cells
"get excited and work against the system," she says.
Based on their role in healthy brains, researchers are now reconsidering the connection of glial cells
Although scientists have known about myelin for several centuries, mystery has shrouded the delicate interplay between nerve cells and the glial cells
that produce it.
Glia account for 90 percent of the cells in a mammalian brain, but until recently scientists focused mainly on the supportive role that glial cells
play in helping mature neurons survive.
In series of more than 1,600 animals, we have proven that subthermal power densities from both pulse-modulated and continuous RF EMFs--including those from GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) mobile phones--have the potency to significantly open the blood-brain barrier such that the animals' own albumin (but not fibrinogen) passes out of the bloodstream into the brain tissue and accumulates in the neurons and glial cells
surrounding the capillaries (Malmgren 1998; Persson et al.
These neural progenitors led to the production of glial cells
and neurons, the latter of which could be used for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
Nerve cells grown without glial cells
in the neighborhood develop far fewer synapses than normal, the scientists found.
This allowed the plasma protein albumin to pass out of the bloodstream and into the brain, accumulating in the neurons and glial cells
surrounding the capillaries.
The Stanford University School of Medicine researchers who conducted the work, led by Ben Barres, MD, PhD, professor of neurobiology, also discovered two of the proteins made by glial cells
that signal synapse formation.
Unexpectedly, the scientists also found reelin affects this migration process independent of glial cells
, which often act to guide such nerve cell movement.