artichoke

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artichoke,

name for two different plants of the family Asteraceae (asteraster
[Gr.,=star], common name for the Asteraceae (Compositae), the aster family, in North America, name for plants of the genus Aster, sometimes called wild asters, and for a related plant more correctly called China aster (Callistephus chinensis
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 family), both having edible parts. The French, or globe, artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a thistlelike plant of which the globular flower heads are used in the immature state as a salad or vegetable; only the lower part of the fleshy bracts ("leaves") and the center ("heart") are eaten. The cultivation of this S European plant is now a considerable industry in California. A large part of the yearly crop is canned for export to South America. The edible blanched leaves and leafstalks are called chard. The other artichoke plant is the Jerusalem artichokeJerusalem artichoke,
tuberous-rooted perennial (Helianthus tuberosus) of the family Asteraceae (aster family), native to North America, where it was early cultivated by the indigenous inhabitants.
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. Artichokes are classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Asterales, family Asteraceae.
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artichoke

artichoke

Liver protector and gentle diuretic, increases bile flow, helps digest fats and get digestion moving, lowers cholesterol and blood pressure, good for indigestion and heartburn, breaks down cholesterol into bile salts. Famous for significantly lowering bad LDL cholesterol while raising good HDL cholesterol. Used throughout history for all kinds of digestive health disorders-indigestion, irritable stomach, nervous, flatulence (gas), irritable bowel, liver protector, enhances detoxification reactions. Artichokes are packed with antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients making them incredible defenders against cancer, aging, heart disease, atherosclerosis. Anticarcinogen flavonoid antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic properties. Artichokes also have lots of fiber, vitamin C, quercitin, potassium, folic acid and magnesium.

Artichoke

 

(Cynara), a genus of perennial herbaceous plants of the family Compositae. The leaves of the artichoke are large and lobed or serrated. The violet, blue, or white tubular blossoms occur in anthodia with an involucre of mul-tiseriate, regularly arranged leaves. There are about 12 species in the Mediterranean countries and the Canary Islands. Two closely related species are cultivated—the car-doon and the true artichoke. The cardoon, or Spanish artichoke (Cynara cardunculus), grows wild in southern Europe, northern Africa, the Canary Islands, and Madeira. At one time it reached tropical America, became wild, and spread on the extratropical plains. The skinned leaves and main leaf ribs are used for food; the fleshy, spicy heart is edible when cooked.

The true, or prickly artichoke (C. scolymus) is widely cultivated in southern Europe and the USSR, chiefly in Kras-nodarsk Krai. The stalk is usually branching and is 0.5–1 m high. The fleshy receptacle of unopened flower clusters and the thickened bases of the scales on the lower rows of the involucre and sometimes on the thick roots are used for food, cooked and canned. The flower receptacle contains 2.5–3 percent protein, 7–15 percent hydrocarbons, 3–11 mg percent of vitamin C, 0.4 mg percent of carotene, vitamins B1 and B2, and 86–88 percent water. The seeds of the artichoke contain about 30 percent fat and are used in poultry feed.

The artichoke plant is also used as a fodder plant (green fodder and silage) and a decorative plant. Laonskii 19, Violet, and Maikopskii 41 are varieties of artichoke found in the USSR. The artichoke is propagated from seeds and cuttings. In southern regions it is grown in a three- or four-year culture, and in the middle zone it is grown as an annual culture by the hotbed method. The yield of flower clusters is 5–25 tons per hectare.

REFERENCES

Vasilenko, N. G. Malorasprostrannennye ovoshchi i priany erasteniia. Moscow, 1962.
Ipat’ev, A. N. Ovoshchnye rasteniia zemnogo shara. Minsk, 1966.

artichoke

[′ärd·ə‚chōk]
(botany)
Cynara scolymus. A herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the order Asterales; the flower head is edible.

artichoke

1. a thistle-like Eurasian plant, Cynara scolymus, cultivated for its large edible flower head containing many fleshy scalelike bracts: family Asteraceae (composites)
2. the unopened flower head of this plant, which can be cooked and eaten
References in periodicals archive ?
When shopping for a globe artichoke, Chahla advises to "look for an even green color with as little brown coloration as possible.
Also at their best in July are courgettes, aubergines, beetroot, chicory, fennel, runner, broad and French beans, globe artichokes, kohlrabi, chicory, peas, watercress and spring onions.
Best of all was a globe artichoke that had been blanched and then deepfried so that its outer leaves were crisp and irresistible.
They are a relative of the globe artichoke and prefer full sun.
Also take a supplement containing globe artichoke or milk thistle.
GOOD ENOUGH TO EAT Globe artichoke Not only are they delicious when cooked, but they are a stunning plant, growing to about 1.
A "barigoule" (I don't know what it is, either) of globe artichoke was also noteworthy, accompanied (predictably) by rocket, but with a light, delicately-flavoured dressing.
THIS month is the time to plant Jerusalem artichokes, which are not related to the globe artichoke but tastes pretty similar.
In restaurants we only use the heart of the globe artichoke, which is the meaty base tucked away inside layers of leaves, and protected by a spiky inedible choke in the middle.
Try the infamous romancing powers of the globe artichoke with a hedonistic touch of saffron hollandaise, or push the boat out and caress the taste buds with a baked half lobster with garlic and marjoram.
You should still be harvesting these knobbly tubers - no relation to the globe artichoke - which are ideal for adding to winter soups, baked or combined with sweet, dried fruits and spices in pies.