Perforation

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perforation

[‚pər·fə′rā·shən]
(ordnance)
Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.

Perforation

 

(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.


Perforation

 

in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
There were no statistically significant differences in the rate of glove perforation between the sharp needle group (30 of 123 cases 24%, 35 of 1410 gloves 2%) and blunt needle group (30 of 117 cases 26%, 37 of 1384 gloves 3%) when compared both by measuring by the total number of cases (p=0.
Additional information was collected to allow analysis of other factors that may influence glove perforation rates such as urgent-emergent versus non-urgent status of cases and the time taken to complete the case.
In cases lasting 60 minutes or less, there was no difference in the rates of glove perforation between the blunt needle group (17/82, 21%) and the sharp needle group (14/68, 21%).
As shown in this prospective study, intraoperative glove perforation occurs with high frequency when both barbed and standard suture techniques are used for closure of the deep fascia.
We did not quantify the prevalence of inner glove perforation due to the increased difficulty of maintaining a sterile operative field while exchanging the inner gloves during surgery.
The mechanisms and risks of surgical glove perforation.
Among these three doctors, there were two glove perforations during the study.