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gluten,

mixture of proteinsprotein,
any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.
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 present in the cereal grains. The long molecules of gluten, insoluble in water, are strong and flexible and form many cross linkages. This gives flour its characteristic chewiness and permits breads and cakes to rise during baking as the gases within expand and are trapped in the gluten superstructure. Various flours have different ratios of gluten to starch (called hardness) and are appropriate for different types of foodstuffs. Thus soft flour is used for cakes, harder flour for pastry, hard flour for bread, and the hardest, or durum, for pasta. The hereditary disease called nontropical spruesprue,
chronic disorder of the small intestine caused by impaired absorption of fat and other nutrients. Two forms of the disease exist.

Tropical sprue occurs in central and northern South America, Asia, Africa, and other specific locations.
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 is characterized by an inability to digest gluten. In this disease the gluten acts as an antigen (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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) and forms immune complexes that cause damage to the mucus lining of the intestine.

gluten

[′glüt·ən]
(biochemistry)
A mixture of proteins found in the seeds of cereals; gives dough elasticity and cohesiveness.
An albuminous element of animal tissue.

gluten

a protein consisting of a mixture of glutelin and gliadin, present in cereal grains, esp wheat. A gluten-free diet is necessary in cases of coeliac disease
References in periodicals archive ?
These findings provide the foundation to advance Kadmon's GLUT inhibitors toward clinical development.
Consequently, we can't really know for certain how large the current glut is.
Glut seeks to address economic viability needs by providing low-cost, high-quality food to local residents where few, if any, other alternatives exist (due to food-desert and food-security problems).
However, Gly/Glut and Gly/ Glut + CP films have comparatively more smooth surface morphology than biocomposites containing rice husk powder.
This section of the study discusses, theoretically, the role of monetary policy, GSEs, regulations, financial innovations, the global saving glut, and structural change in the housing bubble.
Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke and others have blamed the financial crisis of 2008 on a global savings glut, which fuelled flows of money from high-savings emerging-market economies -- especially in Asia -- that run chronic balance-of-payments surpluses.
But the LNG glut is not affecting paper oil prices, with futures trading almost totally disconnected from that of refrigerated methane (see omt7NigrExpGlobalPerspvAug17-09).
Florida orange growers are also finding themselves having to adopt mechanization to stay in business in the face of both increased competition from Brazil, where growers have abundant cheap labor and less costly regulations to comply with than in the United States, and a glut of oranges on the world market.
He also cites a glut of material on the market within some sectors, such as PVC and styrenics, for the slowdown, adding that one secondary styrene producer dumped nearly 4 million tons of material on the market at the end of the year.
Almost overnight, SUVs became a glut in the market and alternative energy, from solar to wind, turned cool again.
A principal hurdle is the glut of small, low-cost carriers now operating in Turkey.