glutamine


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to glutamine: creatine, BCAA

glutamine

(glo͞o`təmēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
..... Click the link for more information.
 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian protein. Its structure is identical to that of glutamic acidglutamic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian proteins.
..... Click the link for more information.
, except that the acidic side-chain carboxyl group of glutamine has been coupled with ammonia, yielding an amide. The glutamic acid-glutamine interconversion is of central importance to the regulation of the levels of toxic ammonia in the body, and it is thus not surprising that when the concentrations of the amino acids of blood plasma are measured, glutamine is found to have the highest of all. Glutamine can donate the ammonia on its side chain to the formation of ureaurea
, organic compound that is the principal end product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals. Urea was the first animal metabolite to be isolated in crystalline form; its crystallization was described in the early 18th cent.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (for eventual excretion by the kidneys) and to purinespurine,
type of organic base found in the nucleotides and nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The German chemist Emil Fischer did much of the basic work on purines and introduced the term into the chemical literature in the early 20th cent.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (necessary for the synthesis of genetic material). Once glutamine is incorporated into proteins, its relatively unreactive side-chain amide participates in very few reactions. Glutamine is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized in the body from glutamic acid. Glutamine was isolated from beet juice in 1883, but was not isolated from a protein until 1932; it was chemically synthesized in 1933.

glutamine

[′glüd·ə‚mēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H10O3N2 An amino acid; the monamide of glutamic acid; found in the juice of many plants and essential to the development of certain bacteria.
References in periodicals archive ?
For industry chain analysis, the report covers Glutamine marketing trader or distributor, marketing channels status, Glutamine Ex-work price, channel price, and end buyer price.
Glutamine as indispensable nutrient in oncology: experimental and clinical evidence.
In earlier studies, researchers had shown that glutamine protects against cell death from H.
Next, they selected those that add an amino acid other than glutamine to the tRNA.
There appears to be a general theme as it relates to muscle cytokine potential and glutamine concentrations.
Anti-tumor activity was dose dependent and was correlated with tumor glutamine accumulation, tumor glutamate decrease, and glutaminase inhibition.
But experimental studies have not shown an increase in the growth of cancer cell cultures given glutamine compared with controls.
In addition, glutamine reduces bacterial overgrowth.
The success of the controlled release feature was verified by the greater than 90% encapsulation efficiency of glutamine, among other factors.
The Canadian Lean Machine beer will be marketed as a sports drink as it contains nutrients such as glutamine, Vitamin C, Zinc and sodium and potassium.
Therefore, it is the main aim of the study to develop an efficient CHO-K1 mammalian cell based host system targeting at serum and glutamine regulated IGF-1 pathway.
It recognizes specific sequence Glu-Asn-Leu-Tyr-Phe-Gln-Gly and cleaves between Glutamine and Glycine residues.

Full browser ?