glycol


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Related to glycol: polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, Triethylene glycol

glycol

(glī`kōl), dihydric alcoholalcohol,
any of a class of organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, where R represents an alkyl group made up of carbon and hydrogen in various proportions and -OH represents one or more hydroxyl groups.
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 in which the two hydroxyl groups are bonded to different carbon atoms; the general formula for a glycol is (CH2)n(OH)2. The most important glycol is the simplest, ethylene glycol, or 1,2-ethanediol, CH2OHCH2OH, a slightly sweet-tasting, somewhat viscous liquid that is miscible with water. Because of its low volatility (b.p. 197°C;) and low corrosive activity, it is widely used in mixtures of automobile antifreezeantifreeze,
substance added to a solvent to lower its freezing point. The solution formed is called an antifreeze mixture. Antifreeze is typically added to water in the cooling system of an internal-combustion engine so that it may be cooled below the freezing point of pure
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. Ethylene glycol can be esterified to form polyesters, e.g., DacronDacron
, trademark for a polyester fiber. Dacron is a condensation polymer obtained from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. Its properties include high tensile strength, high resistance to stretching, both wet and dry, and good resistance to degradation by chemical bleaches
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, and can be nitrated to form an explosive used in mining. It is prepared commercially by oxidation of ethylene at high temperature over a silver oxide catalyst, followed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysishydrolysis
, chemical reaction of a compound with water, usually resulting in the formation of one or more new compounds. The most common hydrolysis occurs when a salt of a weak acid or weak base (or both) is dissolved in water.
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 of the ethylene oxide that is formed.

Cellosolves (e.g., methyl cellosolve, CH3OCH2CH2OH) are monoether derivatives of ethylene glycol. They are excellent solvents, having solvent properties of both ethers and alcohols; they have other uses as well. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to thicken shampoo and cosmetics. It can also be attached to other molecules via a process called pegylation. When pegylated to medicinal drugs, it can alter their distribution in the body, metabolism, and excretion. Such alteration can lead to improved dosing intervals and may also have beneficial effects on safety and efficacy. Pegylation can also mask certain drugs, such as interferon, from the immune system, preventing their rejection.

glycol

[′glī‚kȯl]
(organic chemistry)
Cn H2 n (OH)2 An organic chemical with two hydroxyl groups on an essentially aliphatic carbon chain. Also known as dihydroxy alcohol.
HOCH2CH2OH A colorless dihydroxy alcohol used as an antifreeze, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of dynamites and resins. Also known as ethlene glycol.
References in periodicals archive ?
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is the fastest growing application of the monoethylene glycol market.
A petroleum-based compound that is odourless and tasteless, propylene glycol is approved by Health Canada for numerous manufacturing uses, including oral, injectable and topical pharmaceuticals, beauty products like makeup and shampoo, baby wipes, pet food and asthma inhalers.
Particular emphasis is placed aircraft disposal sites for fast and effective cleaning of the propylene glycol for winter use.
Users and specifiers no longer have to choose between the high performance but toxic properties of ethylene glycol or the safer but less efficient propylene glycol.
With our second plant optimization in Stade, Germany, we are continuing to support the growing needs and demands of the pharmaceutical grade propylene glycol (PG USP/EP) market," said Vincent Lacoste, global strategic marketing manager for Dow Propylene Glycol.
SunMaxx Solar's custom solar-formula Glycol XT is a 50/50 mixture of 1,3-Propanediol and water.
Ethylene glycol is mainly used in making plastics and as an automotive anti-freeze.
An interesting fact is that ethylene glycol and methanol are not very toxic before being metabolized.
The new glycol unit cooler lines support a growing demand for secondary loop refrigeration systems in supermarkets.
Ester-based plasticizers include benzoates, isophthalates, adipates, phthalates, citrates, trimellitates and various glycol esters of aliphatic acids.
It is prepared by a method comprised of dispersing a powder clearcoat in an aqueous medium, adding an adduct that is at least one of an adduct of ethylene oxide with at least one glycol, and/or an adduct of propylene oxide with at least one glycol, wherein the glycol is at least one of 1,2-propylene glycol 1,2-butylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, to form a composition and then wet milling the composition.
But the material safety data sheets (MSDS) from the manufacturers showed many of the inks to contain up to 20 percent glycol ether solvents.